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The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle Co2 And O2

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The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle

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The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle by Robert A. Berner Book Summary:

The term "carbon cycle" is normally thought to mean those processes that govern the present-day transfer of carbon between life, the atmosphere, and the oceans. This book describes another carbon cycle, one which operates over millions of years and involves the transfer of carbon between rocks and the combination of life, the atmosphere, and the oceans. The weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks and ancient sedimentary organic matter (including recent, large-scale human-induced burning of fossil fuels), the burial of organic matter and carbonate minerals in sediments, and volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide contribute to this cycle. In The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle, Robert Berner shows how carbon cycle models can be used to calculate levels of atmospheric CO[2 and O[2 over Phanerozoic time, the past 550 million years, and how results compare with independent methods. His analysis has implications for such disparate subjects as the evolution of land plants, the presence of giant ancient insects, the role of tectonics in paleoclimate, and the current debate over global warming and greenhouse gases

Oxygen

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Oxygen by Donald E. Canfield Book Summary:

The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Donald Canfield—one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans—covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. Canfield guides readers through the various lines of scientific evidence, considers some of the wrong turns and dead ends along the way, and highlights the scientists and researchers who have made key discoveries in the field. Showing how Earth’s atmosphere developed over time, Oxygen takes readers on a remarkable journey through the history of the oxygenation of our planet.

The Long Thaw

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The Long Thaw by David Archer Book Summary:

The human impact on Earth's climate is often treated as a hundred-year issue lasting as far into the future as 2100, the year in which most climate projections cease. In The Long Thaw, David Archer, one of the world’s leading climatologists, reveals the hard truth that these changes in climate will be "locked in," essentially forever. If you think that global warming means slightly hotter weather and a modest rise in sea levels that will persist only so long as fossil fuels hold out (or until we decide to stop burning them), think again. In The Long Thaw, David Archer predicts that if we continue to emit carbon dioxide we may eventually cancel the next ice age and raise the oceans by 50 meters. A human-driven, planet-wide thaw has already begun, and will continue to impact Earth’s climate and sea level for hundreds of thousands of years. The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland may take more than a century to melt, and the overall change in sea level will be one hundred times what is forecast for 2100. By comparing the global warming projection for the next century to natural climate changes of the distant past, and then looking into the future far beyond the usual scientific and political horizon of the year 2100, Archer reveals the hard truths of the long-term climate forecast. Archer shows how just a few centuries of fossil-fuel use will cause not only a climate storm that will last a few hundred years, but dramatic climate changes that will last thousands. Carbon dioxide emitted today will be a problem for millennia. For the first time, humans have become major players in shaping the long-term climate. In fact, a planetwide thaw driven by humans has already begun. But despite the seriousness of the situation, Archer argues that it is still not too late to avert dangerous climate change--if humans can find a way to cooperate as never before. Revealing why carbon dioxide may be an even worse gamble in the long run than in the short, this compelling and critically important book brings the best long-term climate science to a general audience for the first time. With a new preface that discusses recent advances in climate science, and the impact on global warming and climate change, The Long Thaw shows that it is still not too late to avert dangerous climate change—if we can find a way to cooperate as never before.

The Princeton Guide to Ecology

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The Princeton Guide to Ecology by Simon A. Levin,Stephen R. Carpenter,H. Charles J. Godfray,Ann P. Kinzig,Michel Loreau,Jonathan B. Losos,Brian Walker,David S. Wilcove Book Summary:

The Princeton Guide to Ecology is a concise, authoritative one-volume reference to the field's major subjects and key concepts. Edited by eminent ecologist Simon Levin, with contributions from an international team of leading ecologists, the book contains more than ninety clear, accurate, and up-to-date articles on the most important topics within seven major areas: autecology, population ecology, communities and ecosystems, landscapes and the biosphere, conservation biology, ecosystem services, and biosphere management. Complete with more than 200 illustrations (including sixteen pages in color), a glossary of key terms, a chronology of milestones in the field, suggestions for further reading on each topic, and an index, this is an essential volume for undergraduate and graduate students, research ecologists, scientists in related fields, policymakers, and anyone else with a serious interest in ecology. Explains key topics in one concise and authoritative volume Features more than ninety articles written by an international team of leading ecologists Contains more than 200 illustrations, including sixteen pages in color Includes glossary, chronology, suggestions for further reading, and index Covers autecology, population ecology, communities and ecosystems, landscapes and the biosphere, conservation biology, ecosystem services, and biosphere management

Aquatic Photosynthesis

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Aquatic Photosynthesis by Paul G. Falkowski,John A. Raven Book Summary:

Aquatic Photosynthesis is a comprehensive guide to understanding the evolution and ecology of photosynthesis in aquatic environments. This second edition, thoroughly revised to bring it up to date, describes how one of the most fundamental metabolic processes evolved and transformed the surface chemistry of the Earth. The book focuses on recent biochemical and biophysical advances and the molecular biological techniques that have made them possible. In ten chapters that are self-contained but that build upon information presented earlier, the book starts with a reductionist, biophysical description of the photosynthetic reactions. It then moves through biochemical and molecular biological patterns in aquatic photoautotrophs, physiological and ecological principles, and global biogeochemical cycles. The book considers applications to ecology, and refers to historical developments. It can be used as a primary text in a lecture course, or as a supplemental text in a survey course such as biological oceanography, limnology, or biogeochemistry.

Carbon Cycles and Climate

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Carbon Cycles and Climate by Jerry S. Olson,Linda J. Allison,Bobbie-Neal Collier Book Summary:

This partially annotated bibliography contains the first 1000 references from a computerized file of literature on the global ecological implications of carbon cycles and climatic changes. Many early citations originated from the Biogeochemical Ecological Information Center established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1968 and from profiles of computerized files such as Government Research Abstracts (GRA) and Biological Abstracts (BA). Later citations have been extracted from the open literature through 1978 and early 1979, from government reports and impact statements, and from profiles of GRA, BA, and the Energy Data Base of the Department of Energy Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The subject categories covered by this bibliography may be divided into two main topics: carbon cycling and climate system analysis. Volume I contains an introduction and overview. Volume 2 contains an alphabetical (by author) listing of citations. Volume 3 provides indexes for author, organization (corporate authority), keywords (or free index terms), taxonomic category, subject category, Chemical Abstracts codes, Biological Abstracts codes (crosscode), and COSATI/Weekly Government Abstracts codes concentrated with permuted title words.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London by N.A Book Summary:

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Philosophical Transactions

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Philosophical Transactions by N.A Book Summary:

Each issue of Transactions B is devoted to a specific area of the biological sciences, including clinical science. All papers are peer reviewed and edited to the highest standards. Published on the 29th of each month, Transactions B is essential reading for all biologists.

9th North American Paleontological Convention

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9th North American Paleontological Convention by Cincinnati Museum Center Book Summary:

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Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments

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Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments by Vivien Gornitz Book Summary:

One of Springer’s Major Reference Works, this book gives the reader a truly global perspective. It is the first major reference work in its field. Paleoclimate topics covered in the encyclopedia give the reader the capability to place the observations of recent global warming in the context of longer-term natural climate fluctuations. Significant elements of the encyclopedia include recent developments in paleoclimate modeling, paleo-ocean circulation, as well as the influence of geological processes and biological feedbacks on global climate change. The encyclopedia gives the reader an entry point into the literature on these and many other groundbreaking topics.

The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2

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The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2 by Eric T. Sundquist,Wallace S. Broecker Book Summary:

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Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle

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Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle by United States. Department of Energy. Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Carbon Dioxide Research Division Book Summary:

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Choice

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Choice by N.A Book Summary:

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The American Journal of Science

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The American Journal of Science by N.A Book Summary:

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America by National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) Book Summary:

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Global Environment

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Global Environment by Elizabeth Kay Berner,Robert A. Berner Book Summary:

This newly revised edition of Global Environment discusses the major elements of the geochemical cycles and global fluxes found in the atmosphere, land, lakes, rivers, biota, and oceans, as well as the human effects on these fluxes. Retaining the strengths of the original edition while incorporating the latest discoveries, this textbook takes an integrated, multidisciplinary, and global approach to geochemistry and environmental problems and introduces fundamental concepts of meteorology, surficial geology (weathering, erosion, and sedimentation), biogeochemistry, limnology, and oceanography. New concepts and information in this updated edition include changes of atmospheric carbon dioxide over geologic time, major advances in the study of chemical weathering of rocks, ocean acidification, and important environmental problems, such as the amelioration of the acid rain problem due to reduction in sulfur deposition, problems with nitrification of soils and lakes, and eutrophication of rivers and estuaries. An expanded chapter explores atmospheric chemistry and changing climate, with the most up-to-date statistics on CO2, the carbon cycle, other greenhouse gases, and the ozone hole. Only requiring a fundamental understanding in elementary chemistry, yet taking into account extensive and current data, this text is ideal for students in environmental geochemistry, environmental geology, global change, biogeochemistry, water pollution, geochemical cycles, chemical oceanography, and geohydrology, and serves as a valuable reference for researchers working on global geochemical and environmental issues. Revised edition takes a close look at global fluxes involving the atmosphere, land, lakes, rivers, biota, and oceans, and the human effects on these fluxes Detailed discussion of basic concepts including meteorology, surficial geology (weathering, erosion, and sedimentation), biogeochemistry, limnology, and oceanography An expanded up-to-date chapter on atmospheric chemistry and changing climate, including CO2, other greenhouse gases, and ozone Presentation of major advances in the study of chemical weathering Discussion of current environmental topics Global coverage of environmental problems involving water Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.

The Global Sulfur Cycle

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The Global Sulfur Cycle by Dorion Sagan Book Summary:

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Frontiers in Geochemistry

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Frontiers in Geochemistry by Russell Harmon,Andrew Parker Book Summary:

This book is a contribution to the International Year of Planet Earth arising from the 33rd International Geological Congress, held in Oslo, Norway during August 2008. The first section of the book considers aspects of geochemical processes which led to the development of the solid Earth as it is today. The second portion of the book shows how the rapidly-evolving analytical tools and approaches presently used by geochemists may be used to solve emerging environmental and other societal problems. This unique collection of reviews, with contributions from a range of internationally distinguished scientists, will be invaluable reading for advanced students and others interested in the central role geochemistry in the earth sciences.

Interactions of C, N, P and S Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Change

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Interactions of C, N, P and S Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Change by Roland Wollast,Fred T. Mackenzie,Lei Chou Book Summary:

This book is a natural extension of the SCOPE (Scientific Committee of Problems on the Environment) volumes on the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) biogeochemical cycles and their interactions (Likens, 1981; Bolin and Cook, 1983). Substantial progress in the knowledge of these cycles has been made since publication of those volumes. In particular, the nature and extent of biological and inorganic interactions between these cycles have been identified, positive and negative feedbacks recognized and the relationship between the cycles and global environmental change preliminarily elucidated. In March 1991, a NATO Advanced Research Workshop was held for one week in Melreux, Belgium to reexamine the biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P and S on a variety of time and space scales from a holistic point of view. This book is the result of that workshop. The biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P and S are intimately tied to each other through biological productivity and subsequently to problems of global environmental change. These problems may be the most challenging facing humanity in the 21 st century. In the broadest sense, "global change" encompasses both changes to the status of the large, globally connected atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environments (e. g. tropospheric temperature increase) and change occurring as the result of nearly simultaneous local changes in many regions of the world (e. g. eutrophication).

International Aerospace Abstracts

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International Aerospace Abstracts by N.A Book Summary:

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The Global Sulfur Cycle

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The Global Sulfur Cycle by Dorian Sagan Book Summary:

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The Earth System

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The Earth System by Lee R. Kump,James F. Kasting,Robert G. Crane Book Summary:

"The Earth System, Second Edition" employs a systems-based approach to examine Earth science at the global level. This text explores how: Earth's processes have connections to the past and to each other Seemingly small-scale changes to Earth can have large-scale effects Processes that are occurring now are molding the course of the future The second edition incorporates two new chapters: Modeling the Atmosphere-Ocean System--A discussion of why numerical models are necessary, how they are used, what they can tell us about past and future climates, and what their limitations are. A Focus on the Biota: Ecosystems and Biodiversity--Focuses on life's role in the Earth system, how ecosystems function, what biodiversity is, and whether or not biological diversity enhances the stability of ecosystems. Three categories of boxed text are included and offer a deeper study of the topics presented. A Closer Look--Includes more advanced concepts, results from current research, and explanations of interesting phenomena. Important Concepts--In-depth presentations of fundamental concepts from the natural sciences essential to our understanding of the Earth system. Thinking Quantitatively--Demonstrates how simple mathematics can be used to better understand the workings of the Earth system.

Petroleum Abstracts

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Petroleum Abstracts by N.A Book Summary:

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Acta geologica Polonica

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Acta geologica Polonica by N.A Book Summary:

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Evolution of the Atmosphere, Fire and the Anthropocene Climate Event Horizon

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Evolution of the Atmosphere, Fire and the Anthropocene Climate Event Horizon by Andrew Y. Glikson Book Summary:

Unique among all creatures, further to the increase in its cranial volume from Australopithecus to Homo sapiens, the use of tools and cultural and scientific creativity, the genus Homo is distinguished by the mastery of fire, which since about two million years ago has become its blueprint. Through the Holocene and culminating in the Anthropocene, the burning of much of the terrestrial vegetation, excavation and combustion of fossil carbon from up to 420 million years-old biospheres, are leading to a global oxidation event on a geological scale, a rise in entropy in nature and the sixth mass extinction of species.

Deep Carbon

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Deep Carbon by Beth N. Orcutt,Isabelle Daniel,Rajdeep Dasgupta Book Summary:

A comprehensive guide to carbon inside Earth - its quantities, movements, forms, origins, changes over time and impact on planetary processes. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.

Treatise on Geochemistry: The atmosphere

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Treatise on Geochemistry: The atmosphere by Heinrich D. Holland,Karl K. Turekian Book Summary:

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Index to Theses with Abstracts Accepted for Higher Degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland and the Council for National Academic Awards

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Index to Theses with Abstracts Accepted for Higher Degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland and the Council for National Academic Awards by N.A Book Summary:

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Scientists Debate Gaia

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Scientists Debate Gaia by Stephen Henry Schneider,James R. Miller,Eileen Crist,Penelope J. Boston Book Summary:

Leading scientists bring the controversy over Gaia up to date by exploring a broad range of recent thinking on Gaia theory.

Annales Geophysicae

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Annales Geophysicae by N.A Book Summary:

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Climates Past and Present

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Climates Past and Present by Brian J. Skinner Book Summary:

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Geochemistry International

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Geochemistry International by N.A Book Summary:

Vols. for 1964-v. 2, no. 1, 1965 include selected articles translated from geochemical papers from other languages, but primarily from Russian, German, French and Japanese.

Chemical Abstracts

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Chemical Abstracts by N.A Book Summary:

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Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts

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Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts by N.A Book Summary:

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Mineralogical Magazine

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Mineralogical Magazine by N.A Book Summary:

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Encyclopedia of Ecology

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Encyclopedia of Ecology by Sven Erik Jørgensen,Brian D. Fath Book Summary:

The Encyclopedia of Ecology contains contributions from international experts on a diverse array of topics related to ecology. It provides current and comprehensive information on many themes, including behavioral ecology, ecological processes, ecological modeling, ecological engineering, ecological indicators, ecological informatics, ecosystems, ecotoxicology, evolutionary ecology, general ecology, global ecology, human ecology, and systems ecology. The online version includes extensive internal cross-referencing and dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases.

Bibliography and Index of Geology

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Bibliography and Index of Geology by N.A Book Summary:

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Applied Photosynthesis

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Applied Photosynthesis by Mohammad Najafpour Book Summary:

Using the energy from sunlight, photosynthesis usually converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, which are important for all living creatures. Photosynthesis is one of the most important reactions on Earth, and it is a scientific field that is intrinsically interdisciplinary, and many research groups have considered photosynthesis. The aim of this book is to provide new progresses on applied aspects of photosynthesis, and different research groups collected their voluble results from study of this interesting process. All sections have been written by experts in their fields, and book chapters present different and new subjects on photosynthesis.