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The Mind As A Scientific Object Between Brain And Culture

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The Mind As a Scientific Object

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The Mind As a Scientific Object by Christina E. Erneling,David M. Johnson Book Summary:

What holds together the various fields that are supposed to consititute the general intellectual discipline that people now call cognitive science? In this book, Erneling and Johnson identify two problems with defining this discipline. First, some theorists identify the common subject matter as the mind, but scientists and philosophers have not been able to agree on any single, satisfactory answer to the question of what the mind is. Second, those who speculate about the general characteristics that belong to cognitive science tend to assume that all the particular fields falling under the rubric--psychology, linguistics, biology, and son on--are of roughly equal value in their ability to shed light on the nature of mind. This book argues that all the cognitive science disciplines are not equally able to provide answers to ontological questions about the mind, but rather that only neurophysiology and cultural psychology are suited to answer these questions. However, since the cultural account of mind has long been ignored in favor of the neurophysiological account, Erneling and Johnson bring together contributions that focus especially on different versions of the cultural account of the mind.

The Westminster Review

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The Westminster Review by N.A Book Summary:

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Philosophy of Mind: Contemporary Readings

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Philosophy of Mind: Contemporary Readings by Timothy O'Connor,David Robb Book Summary:

Philosophy of Mind: Contemporary Readings is a comprehensive anthology that draws together leading philosophers writing on the major topics within philosophy of mind. Robb and O'Connor have carefully chosen articles under the following headings: *Substance Dualism and Idealism *Materialism *Mind and Representation *Consciousness Each section is prefaced by an introductory essay by the editors which guides the student gently into the topic in which leading philosophers are included. The book is highly accessible and user-friendly and provides a broad-ranging exploration of the subject. Ideal for any philosophy student, this book will prove essential reading for any philosophy of mind course. The readings are designed to complement John Heil's Philosophy of Mind: A Contemporary Introduction, Second edition (Routledge 2003), although the anthology can also be used as a stand-alone volume.

Aristotle and Contemporary Science

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Aristotle and Contemporary Science by Richard A. Gardner Book Summary:

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How People Learn

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How People Learn by National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice Book Summary:

First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

Erwin Schrödinger’s World View

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Erwin Schrödinger’s World View by Johann Götschl Book Summary:

Erwin Schrödinger is one of the greatest figures of theoretical physics, but there is another side to the man: not only did his work revolutionize physics, it also radiacally changed the foundations of our modern worldview, modern biology, philosophy of science, philosophy of the mind, and epistemology. This book explores the lesser-known aspects of Schrödinger's thought, revealing the physicist as a philosopher and polymath whose highly original ideas anticipated the current merging of the natural and the social sciences and the humanities. Thirteen renowned scientists and philosophers have contributed to the volume. Part I reveals the philosophical importance of Schrödinger's work as a physicist. Part II examines his theory of life and of the self-organization of matter. Part III shows how Schrödinger's ideas have influenced contemporary philosophy of nature and our modern view of the world, drawing a fascinating picture of the ongoing synthesis of nature and culture: one of the most interesting developments of modern thought. The volume also contains the most comprehensive bibliography of Schrödinger's scientific work, making it at the same time a book of acute contemporary relevance and a major work of reference.

Brain Mystery Light and Dark

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Brain Mystery Light and Dark by Charles Don Keyes Book Summary:

Brain Mystery Light and Dark examines scientific models of how the brain becomes conscious and argues that the spiritual dimension of life is compatible with the main scientific theories. Keyes shows us that the belief in the unity of mind and brain does not necessarily undermine aesthetic, religious, and ethical beliefs.

American Book Publishing Record

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American Book Publishing Record by N.A Book Summary:

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Learning Clinical Reasoning

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Learning Clinical Reasoning by Jerome P. Kassirer,John B. Wong,Richard I. Kopelman Book Summary:

Learning Clinical Reasoning uses a case-based approach to teach students the basics of clinical reasoning. The first section explains the chief components of the clinical reasoning process, such as generating and refining diagnostic hypotheses, using and interpreting diagnostic tests, assembling a working diagnosis, therapeutic decision-making, and examining and applying evidence, and also includes a discussion of cognitive errors. The second section contains 69 cases in which clinicians "think out loud" about diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas, and the authors critique these clinicians' reasoning. This edition has thirty new cases from theNew England Journal of Medicine and other sources and expanded discussions of evidence-based medicine, clinical practice guidelines, and cognitive errors.

Routledge Handbook of Body Studies

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Routledge Handbook of Body Studies by Bryan S Turner Book Summary:

In the last three decades, the human body has gained increasing prominence in contemporary political debates, and it has become a central topic of modern social sciences and humanities. Modern technologies – such as organ transplants, stem-cell research, nanotechnology, cosmetic surgery and cryonics – have changed how we think about the body. In this collection of thirty original essays by leading figures in the field, these issues are explored across a number of theoretical and disciplinary perspectives, including pragmatism, feminism, queer theory, post-modernism, post-humanism, cultural sociology, philosophy and anthropology. A wide range of case studies, which include cosmetics, diet, organ transplants, racial bodies, masculinity and sexuality, eating disorders, religion and the sacred body, and disability, are used to appraise these different perspectives. In addition, this Handbook explores various epistemological approaches to the basic question: what is a body? It also offers a strongly themed range of chapters on empirical topics that are organized around religion, medicine, gender, technology and consumption. It also contributes to the debate over the globalization of the body: how have military technology, modern medicine, sport and consumption led to this contemporary obsession with matters corporeal? The Handbook’s clear, direct style will appeal to a wide undergraduate audience in the social sciences, particularly for those studying medical sociology, gender studies, sports studies, disability studies, social gerontology, or the sociology of religion. It will serve to consolidate the new field of body studies.

The Christian Union

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The Christian Union by Henry Ward Beecher Book Summary:

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Friends' Intelligencer

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Friends' Intelligencer by N.A Book Summary:

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The Concept of Modularity in Cognitive Science

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The Concept of Modularity in Cognitive Science by Amol Ramesh Sarva Book Summary:

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Technology and Reality

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Technology and Reality by J.K. Feibleman Book Summary:

In the following pages I have endeavored to show the impact on philosophy of tech nology and science; more specifically, I have tried to make up for the neglect by the classical philosophers of the historic role of technology and also to suggest what positive effects on philosophy the ahnost daily advances in the physical sciences might have. Above all, I wanted to remind the ontologist of his debt to the artificer: tech nology with its recent gigantic achievements has introduced a new ingredient into the world, and so is sure to influence our knowledge of what there is. This book, then, could as well have been called 'Ethnotechnology: An Explanation of Human Behavior by Means of Material Culture', but the picture is a complex one, and there are many more special problems that need to be prominently featured in the discussion. Human culture never goes forward on all fronts at the same time. In our era it is unquestionably not only technology but also the sciences which are making the most rapid progress. Philosophy has not been very successful at keeping up with them. As a consequence there is an 'enormous gulf between scientists and philosophers today, a gulf which is as large as it has ever been. ' (1) I can see that with science moving so rapidly, its current lessons for philosophy might well be outmoded tomorrow.

The Role of the Empirical (and of the a Priori) in Epistemology

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The Role of the Empirical (and of the a Priori) in Epistemology by N.A Book Summary:

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Mining the Media Archive

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Mining the Media Archive by Dot Tuer Book Summary:

Mining the Media Archive gathers together an exciting collection of essays by writer and cultural theorist Dot Tuer. Ranging from monographs on new media artists to a history of Canada's most controversial artist-run centre, the CEAC, to testimonial writing on cultural politics and post-colonialism in Canada and Argentina, Tuer's writings address issues of global media and local remembrance through a unique blend of storytelling, archival research and cultural analysis.

New England Journal of Education

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New England Journal of Education by N.A Book Summary:

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The Journal of Education

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The Journal of Education by Thomas Williams Bicknell,Albert Edward Winship,Anson Wood Belding Book Summary:

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The British National Bibliography

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The British National Bibliography by Arthur James Wells Book Summary:

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Choice

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Choice by N.A Book Summary:

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The Changing Image of the Sciences

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The Changing Image of the Sciences by Ida H. Stamhuis,Teun Koetsier,Cornelis De Pater,Albert Van Helden Book Summary:

This volume is written as a reaction to the worldwide decreasing interest in the natural sciences. It addresses many intriguing questions. How is the changing image of the distinct sciences experienced by the general public, by the scientists themselves, or in disciplines in which natural sciences are applied? How can it be connected to the phenomenon of the low number of women in science? It is of interest to researchers, teachers, and students of natural sciences, the history of science, and philosophy.

Scientific Materialism

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Scientific Materialism by M. Bunge Book Summary:

The word 'materialism' is ambiguous: it designates a moral doc trine as well as a philosophy and, indeed, an entire world view. Moral materialism is identical with hedonism, or the doctrine that humans should pursue only their own pleasure. Philosophical ma terialismis the view that the real worId is composed exclusively of material things. The two doctrines are logically independent: hedonism is consistent with immaterialism, and materialism is compatible with high minded morals. We shall be concerned ex c1usively with philosophical materialism. And we shall not confuse it with realism, or the epistemological doctrine that knowIedge, or at any rate scientific knowledge, attempts to represent reality. Philosophical materialism is not a recent fad and it is not a solid block: it is as old as philosophy and it has gone through six quite different stages. The first was ancient materialism, centered around Greek and Indian atomism. The second was the revival of the first during the 17th century. The third was 18th century ma terialism, partly derived from one side of Descartes' ambiguous legacy. The fourth was the mid-19th century "scientific" material ism, which flourished mainly in Germany and England, and was tied to the upsurge of chemistry and biology. The fifth was dialec tical and historical materialism, which accompanied the consolida tion of the socialist ideology. And the sixth or current stage, evolved mainly by Australian and American philosophers, is aca demic and nonpartisan but otherwise very heterogeneous. Ancient materialism was thoroughly mechanistic.

Critical Neuroscience

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Critical Neuroscience by Suparna Choudhury,Jan Slaby Book Summary:

Critical Neuroscience: A Handbook of the Social and Cultural Contexts of Neuroscience brings together multi-disciplinary scholars from around the world to explore key social, historical and philosophical studies of neuroscience, and to analyze the socio-cultural implications of recent advances in the field. This text’s original, interdisciplinary approach explores the creative potential for engaging experimental neuroscience with social studies of neuroscience while furthering the dialogue between neuroscience and the disciplines of the social sciences and humanities. Critical Neuroscience transcends traditional skepticism, introducing novel ideas about ‘how to be critical’ in and about science.

Paradoxes of Free Will

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Paradoxes of Free Will by Gunther Siegmund Stent Book Summary:

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The American Journal of the Medical Sciences

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The American Journal of the Medical Sciences by N.A Book Summary:

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Bite Me

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Bite Me by Fabio Parasecoli Book Summary:

Food is not only something we eat, it is something we use to define ourselves. Ingestion and incorporation are central to our connection with the world outside our bodies. Food's powerful social, economic, political and symbolic roles cannot be ignored - what we eat is a marker of power, cultural capital, class, ethnic and racial identity. Bite Me considers the ways in which popular culture reveals our relationship with food and our own bodies and how these have become an arena for political and ideological battles. Drawing on an extraordinary range of material - films, books, comics, songs, music videos, websites, slang, performances, advertising and mass-produced objects - Bite Me invites the reader to take a fresh look at today's products and practices to see how much food shapes our lives, perceptions and identities.

Logos of Phenomenology and Phenomenology of The Logos. Book Four

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Logos of Phenomenology and Phenomenology of The Logos. Book Four by Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka Book Summary:

Prompted and ever diversified by the specifically human interrogative logos, scientific inquiries seek a common system of links in order to mutually confirm and rectify their results. Coming closer and closer to phenomenology, the sciences of life find the common ground of the reality in the ontopoiesis of life. Could it not be that the interrogative logos of science, participating in human creative inventiveness will bring together also the divergent scientific methods in a common network? A network which comprises natural processes, societal sharing-in-life, and existential communication.

Embodied and grounded cognition

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Embodied and grounded cognition by Anna Borghi,Diane Pecher Book Summary:

In the last 10-15 years, the "embodied" and "grounded" cognition approach has become widespread in all fields related to cognitive science, such as cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, anthropology, computational modelling and robotics. According to this approach, our cognitive activity is grounded in sensory-motor processes and situated in specific contexts and situations. Therefore, in this view, concepts consist of the reactivation of the same neural pattern that is present when we perceive and/or interact with the objects they refer to. In the same way, understanding language would imply forming a mental simulation of what is linguistically described. This simulation would entail the recruitment of the same neurons that are activated when actually acting or perceiving the situation, action, emotion, object or entity described by language. In the last years a lot of evidence has been collected in favour of EC and GC view. The aim of this Research Topic is twofold. First, it intends to give an idea of the field of embodied and grounded cognition in its broadness. We therefore intend to invite scientists of different disciplines (anthropology, philosophy, linguistics, cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, computer science) to submit their proposals. The second aim of this Research Topicis to focus on some challenges that in our opinion embodied and grounded theories of cognition need to face. First, we believe that one important challenge for EC and GC views is to account for the way the so-called "abstract concepts" and abstract words are represented. Evidence on the representation of concrete concepts and words is compelling, whereas evidence on abstract concepts representation is still too scarce and limited to restricted domains. We therefore welcome proposals dealing with this complex issue. Second, we think that embodied and grounded theories of cognition would need to formulate more precise hypotheses, and that in general within the field a larger theoretical effort should be made. It is striking that, even if a lot of work in the field of computational modelling and robotics starts from an embodied approach, experimental and modelling work on embodied cognition remain somehow separate. We therefore invite researchers to submit papers proposing models which might help to explain phenomena as well as to constrain and specify in more detail the predictions and the claims advanced within the framework of EC and GC theories.

Consciousness and the Brain

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Consciousness and the Brain by Gordon Globus Book Summary:

The relationship of consciousness to brain, which Schopenhauer grandly referred to as the "world knot," remains an unsolved problem within both philosophy and science. The central focus in what follows is the relevance of science---from psychoanalysis to neurophysiology and quantum physics-to the mind-brain puzzle. Many would argue that we have advanced little since the age of the Greek philosophers, and that the extraordinary accumulation of neuroscientific knowledge in this century has helped not at all. Increas ingly, philosophers and scientists have tended to go their separate ways in considering the issues, since they tend to differ in the questions that they ask, the data and ideas which are provided for consideration, their methods for answering these questions, and criteria for judging the acceptability of an answer. But it is our conviction that philosophers and scientists can usefully interchange, at least to the extent that they provide co~straints upon each other's preferred strategies, and it may prove possible for more substantive progress to be made. Philosophers have said some rather naive things by ignoring the extraordinary advances in the neurosciences in the twentieth century. The skull is not filled with green cheese! On the other hand, the arrogance of many scientists toward philosophy and their faith in the scientific method is equally naive. Scientists clearly have much to learn from philosophy as an intellectual discipline.

Prefiguring Cyberculture

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Prefiguring Cyberculture by Darren Tofts,Annemarie Jonson,Alessio Cavallaro Book Summary:

A multidisciplinary compilation of essays and other writings explores the antecedents of Internet technology in the works of Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Mary Shelley, William Gibson, and others. (Technology)

Understanding Family Change and Variation

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Understanding Family Change and Variation by Jennifer A. Johnson-Hanks,Christine A. Bachrach,S. Philip Morgan,Hans-Peter Kohler Book Summary:

Fertility rates vary considerably across and within societies, and over time. Over the last three decades, social demographers have made remarkable progress in documenting these axes of variation, but theoretical models to explain family change and variation have lagged behind. At the same time, our sister disciplines—from cultural anthropology to social psychology to cognitive science and beyond—have made dramatic strides in understanding how social action works, and how bodies, brains, cultural contexts, and structural conditions are coordinated in that process. Understanding Family Change and Variation: Toward a Theory of Conjunctural Action argues that social demography must be reintegrated into the core of theory and research about the processes and mechanisms of social action, and proposes a framework through which that reintegration can occur. This framework posits that material and schematic structures profoundly shape the occurrence, frequency, and context of the vital events that constitute the object of social demography. Fertility and family behaviors are best understood as a function not just of individual traits, but of the structured contexts in which behavior occurs. This approach upends many assumptions in social demography, encouraging demographers to embrace the endogeneity of social life and to move beyond fruitless debates of structure versus culture, of agency versus structure, or of biology versus society.

Indigenous Cognition: Functioning in Cultural Context

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Indigenous Cognition: Functioning in Cultural Context by J.W. Berry,S.H Irvine,E.G. Hunt Book Summary:

Cognitive psychology has established itself as one of the major branches of the discipline. with much to its credit in such areas as decision making. information processing. memory and learning. Similarly. the assessment of cognitive abilities has become one of the hallmarks of the practice of psychology in the school. in the factory and in the clinic. In recent years. these two branches have begun to interact. and the two approaches have begun mutually to engage each other. A third trend, that of cross-cultural cognitive psychology, has been informed both by experimental cognitive sciences and by the practice of ability assessment (see. for example. Berry and Dasen, 1974; Cole and Scribner, 1974). However. the reverse has not been true: the cognitive processes and abilities of much of the world's peoples studied by cross-cultural psychologists have not been introduced to psychologists working in these two Western traditions (see Irvine and Berry, 1987). This volume attempts to begin this introduction by asking the question: "What is known about the cognitive functions of other peoples that could enable extant psychology to become more comprehensive, to attain a 'universal' cognitive psychology?" Who are these "other peoples". and by extension, what then is "indigenous cognition"? The first question is rather easy to answer. but the second is more difficult.

Soul Search, a Scientist Explores the Afterlife

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Soul Search, a Scientist Explores the Afterlife by David Darling Book Summary:

What happens when we die? Does everything we are just stop? Is consciousness lost forever? Or does some vital spark inside us, a spirit or a soul, live on? We find it almost impossible to think about not having a mind, of our awareness being snuffed out like a candle. Yet the stark fact is that within a century or so, everyone alive today - all six billion of us - will be dead. Humans are the only creatures on earth that know they are going to die. But that foreknowledge has come fairly recently and it flies in the face of four billion years of evolution. Those eons have genetically conditioned us to do all we can to preserve ourselves and our kin. The result is that we are caught in a dilemma. We are programmed to survive by our genes yet made painfully aware of our mortality by our forward-looking brain. If we admit that death is inevitable, then our will to survive may be fatally weakened. On the other hand, if we deny death, we have to turn a blind eye to a patent fact of the real world. Only one avenue of escape is possible - belief in an afterlife. With this we can face the nightmare that death poses to the rational mind. We distance ourselves from death by institutionalizing it. Whereas in earlier times most people spent their last days at home in the bosom of family and friends, today four-fifths of us are removed to hospitals or nursing homes. We are hidden from the gaze of the young and healthy and tended to by strangers. As the end approaches, we are discreetly moved to wards for the terminally ill and plugged into life-support machines. Technology takes over. And when we do eventually die, it is often the inadequacy of the equipment or the shortcomings of the treatment that are blamed. Instead of accepting death as a natural and inevitable fact of life, we are in danger of convincing ourselves that, given further medical advances, we shall be able to stave it off for as long as we like. "Some people want to achieve immortality through their works or their descendants," said Woody Allen. "I want to achieve it through not dying." Now, for the first time, science seems to be holding out the slender hope of cheating death. Already, some of our vital parts can be replaced with natural or synthetic substitutes. In time, it seems, the transplant surgeon will be able to do for a human being what any competent mechanic in a well-equipped garage can do for a car. Key words - Death, Reincarnation, Consciousness, Cosmos, Science, Soul, Afterlife, Universe Author Bio - David Darling is the author of more than 40 titles including narrative science titles: Megacatastrophes!, We Are Not Alone, Gravity's Arc, Equations of Eternity, a New York Times Notable Book, and Deep Time. He is also the author of the bestseller-The Universal Book of Mathematics: From Abracadabra to Zeno's Paradoxes. Darling's other titles include The Universal Book of Astronomy, and The Complete Book of Spaceflight, as well as more than 30 children's books. His articles and reviews have appeared in Astronomy, Omni, Penthouse, New Scientist, the New York Times, and the Guardian, among others. David Darling was born in Glossop, Derbyshire, England, on July 29, 1953, and grew up in the beautiful Peak District, close to Kinder Scout for those who know the area. He went to New Mills Grammar School and then on to Sheffield University, where he earned his B.Sc. in physics in 1974, and Manchester University, for my Ph.D. in astronomy in 1977. David Darling's interests, apart from his work and family, include singing, song-writing, and playing guitar, walking, and travel.

Justice, Law and Culture

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Justice, Law and Culture by J.K. Feibleman Book Summary:

The following pages contain a theory of justice and a theory of law. Justice will be defined as the demand for a system of laws, and law as an established regulation which applies equally throughout a society and is backed by force. The demand for a system of laws is met by means of a legal system. The theory will have to include what the system and the laws are in tended to regulate. The reference is to all men and their possessions in a going concern. In the past all such theories have been discussed only in terms of society, justice as applicable to society and the laws promul gated within it. However, men and their societies are not the whole story: in recent centuries artifacts have played an increasingly important role. To leave them out of all consideration in the theory would be to leave the theory itself incomplete and even distorted. For the key conception ought to be one not of society but of culture. Society is an organization of men but culture is something more. I define culture (civilization has often been employed as a synonym) as an organization of men together with their material possessions. Such possessions consist in artifacts: material objects which have been altered through human agency in order to reduce human needs. The makers of the artifacts are altered by them. Men have their possessions together, and this objectifies and consolidates the culture.

Social Brain Matters

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Social Brain Matters by Oscar Vilarroya,Francesc Forn i Argimon Book Summary:

This book examines philosophical and scientific implications of Neodarwinism relative to recent empirical data. It develops explanations of social behavior and cognition through analysis of mental capabilities and consideration of ethical issues. It includes debate within cognitive science among explanations of social and moral phenomena from philosophy, evolutionary and cognitive psychology, neurobiology, linguistics, and computer science. Cognitive Science (CS) provides an original corpus of scholarly work that makes explicit the import of cognitive-science research for philosophical analysis. Topics include the nature, structure, and justification of knowledge, cognitive architectures and development, brain-mind theories, and consciousness.

The Steps of Man Towards Civilization

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The Steps of Man Towards Civilization by Georg Oesterdiekhoff Book Summary:

This book delivers an introduction to the theory programme called structure-genetic sociology. I developed this theory programme in the past 30 years. In the meantime, I have written ten books and numerous articles about the subject. The programme mainly bases on developmental psychology and has worked it out to a theory of the evolution of humankind. It encompasses a theory of social change and social evolution, a theory of the development of economy, society, culture, sciences, religion, morals, law, and manners. The fact of the anthropological evolution of humankind from lower, childlike anthropological stages to more elaborated stages is the most groundbreaking and fascinating fact in all social sciences and humanities. It is the only phenomenon within humanities and social sciences whose relevance and importance corresponds to the fact of biological evolution provided by Darwin?'s evolutionary theory. This fact forms the kernel of the entire theory programme.Structure-genetic sociology is the theoretical heir of the outstanding classical approaches such as the classical sociologies, the classical British anthropology, the ethnology of Lucien L vy-Bruhl, the developmental psychology of Jean Piaget, and the philosophy of symbolic forms of Ernst Cassirer. We can understand these classical achievements only against the background of the more elaborated empirical foundations and theoretical structures of my structure-genetic sociology. It helps to verify, to correct, to develop, and to improve the best traditions of social sciences and humanities. Structure-genetic sociology formulates the essence of three hundred years of social sciences and humanities.