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Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions

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Saving Children from a Life of Crime : Early Risk Factors and Effective Interventions

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Saving Children from a Life of Crime : Early Risk Factors and Effective Interventions by Institute of Criminology Cambridge University David P. Farrington Professor of Psychological Criminology,Department of Criminal Justice University of Massachusetts Brandon C. Welsh Assistant Professor, Lowell Book Summary:

After decades of rigorous study in the United States and across the Western world, a great deal is known about the early risk factors for offending. High impulsiveness, low attainment, criminal parents, parental conflict, and growing up in a deprived, high-crime neighborhood are among the most important factors. There is also a growing body of high quality scientific evidence on the effectiveness of early prevention programs designed to prevent children from embarking on a life of crime. Drawing on the latest evidence, Saving Children from a Life of Crime is the first book to assess the early causes of offending and what works best to prevent it. Preschool intellectual enrichment, child skills training, parent management training, and home visiting programs are among the most effective early prevention programs. Criminologists David Farrington and Brandon Welsh also outline a policy strategy--early prevention--that uses this current research knowledge and brings into sharper focus what America's national crime fighting priority ought to be. At a time when unacceptable crime levels in America, rising criminal justice costs, and a punitive crime policy have spurred a growing interest in the early prevention of delinquency, Farrington and Welsh here lay the groundwork for change with a comprehensive national prevention strategy to save children from a life of crime.

Saving Children from a Life of Crime

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Saving Children from a Life of Crime by David P. Farrington,Brandon C. Welsh Book Summary:

After decades of rigorous study in the United States and across the Western world, a great deal is known about the early risk factors for offending. High impulsiveness, low attainment, criminal parents, parental conflict, and growing up in a deprived, high-crime neighborhood are among the most important factors. There is also a growing body of high quality scientific evidence on the effectiveness of early prevention programs designed to prevent children from embarking on a life of crime. Drawing on the latest evidence, Saving Children from a Life of Crime is the first book to assess the early causes of offending and what works best to prevent it. Preschool intellectual enrichment, child skills training, parent management training, and home visiting programs are among the most effective early prevention programs. Criminologists David Farrington and Brandon Welsh also outline a policy strategy--early prevention--that uses this current research knowledge and brings into sharper focus what America's national crime fighting priority ought to be. At a time when unacceptable crime levels in America, rising criminal justice costs, and a punitive crime policy have spurred a growing interest in the early prevention of delinquency, Farrington and Welsh here lay the groundwork for change with a comprehensive national prevention strategy to save children from a life of crime.

Saving Children from a Life of Crime

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Saving Children from a Life of Crime by David P. Farrington,Brandon Welsh,David P. (Professor of Psychological Criminology Farrington, Institute of Criminology Professor of Psychological Criminology Institute of Criminology Cambridge University),Professor of Criminal Justice Brandon C Welsh,Brandon C. (Assistant Professor Welsh, Department of Criminal Justice Assistant Professor Department of Criminal Justice University of Massachusetts Lowell) Book Summary:

A great deal is known about the early risk factors for offending. High impulsiveness, low attainment, criminal parents, parental conflict, and growing up in a deprived, high-crime neighborhood are among the most important factors. There is also a growing body of high quality scientific evidence on the effectiveness of early prevention programs designed to prevent children from embarking on a life of crime. The authors review the data on early causes of offending and what works best to prevent it. Preschool intellectual enrichment, child skills training, parent management training, and home visiting programs are among the most effective early prevention programs. They also outline a policy strategy early prevention. This is based on current research that lays the groundwork for a comprehensive national prevention strategy to save children from a life of crime.

Making Public Places Safer

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Making Public Places Safer by Brandon C. Welsh,David P. Farrington Book Summary:

The United Kingdom has more than 4.2 million public closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras-one for every fourteen citizens. Across the United States, hundreds of video surveillance systems are being installed in town centers, public transportation facilities, and schools at a cost exceeding $100 million annually. And now other Western countries have begun to experiment with CCTV to prevent crime in public places. In light of this expansion and the associated public expenditure, as well as pressing concerns about privacy rights, there is an acute need for an evidence-based approach to inform policy and practice. Drawing on the highest-quality research, criminologists Brandon C. Welsh and David P. Farrington assess the effectiveness and social costs of not only CCTV, but also of other important surveillance methods to prevent crime in public space, such as improved street lighting, security guards, place managers, and defensible space. Importantly, the book goes beyond the question of "Does it work?" and examines the specific conditions and contexts under which these surveillance methods may have an effect on crime as well as the mechanisms that bring about a reduction in crime. At a time when cities need cost-effective methods to fight crime and the public gradually awakens to the burdens of sacrificing their privacy and civil rights for security, Welsh and Farrington provide this timely and reliable guide to the most effective and non-invasive uses of surveillance to make public places safer from crime.

Children, Families and Violence

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Children, Families and Violence by Brian Howe,Katherine Covell Book Summary:

This book examines the risk factors surrounding children at risk of experiencing and perpetrating violence, and looks at the positive role that children's rights can play in their protection. The authors propose that violence in childhood is not spontaneous: that children are raised to become violent in poorly functioning families and child-unfriendly environments. They may be exposed to toxic substances in utero, to maltreatment in infancy, to domestic violence or parental criminality as they grow up. Each of these risk factors is empirically linked with the development of antisocial and aggressive behaviour, and each reflects a violation of children's rights to protection from maltreatment. The authors show how respecting children's rights and safeguarding them from exposure to violence can shift the balance between risk and protective factors and, as a result, reduce the incidence and severity of childhood violence. This book will be essential reading for professionals working in child protection or with young offenders, academics, students, practitioners and policy-makers.

Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice

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Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice by Institute of Medicine,National Research Council,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Law and Justice,Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control Book Summary:

Even though youth crime rates have fallen since the mid-1990s, public fear and political rhetoric over the issue have heightened. The Columbine shootings and other sensational incidents add to the furor. Often overlooked are the underlying problems of child poverty, social disadvantage, and the pitfalls inherent to adolescent decisionmaking that contribute to youth crime. From a policy standpoint, adolescent offenders are caught in the crossfire between nurturance of youth and punishment of criminals, between rehabilitation and "get tough" pronouncements. In the midst of this emotional debate, the National Research Council's Panel on Juvenile Crime steps forward with an authoritative review of the best available data and analysis. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents recommendations for addressing the many aspects of America's youth crime problem. This timely release discusses patterns and trends in crimes by children and adolescents--trends revealed by arrest data, victim reports, and other sources; youth crime within general crime; and race and sex disparities. The book explores desistance--the probability that delinquency or criminal activities decrease with age--and evaluates different approaches to predicting future crime rates. Why do young people turn to delinquency? Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents what we know and what we urgently need to find out about contributing factors, ranging from prenatal care, differences in temperament, and family influences to the role of peer relationships, the impact of the school policies toward delinquency, and the broader influences of the neighborhood and community. Equally important, this book examines a range of solutions: Prevention and intervention efforts directed to individuals, peer groups, and families, as well as day care-, school- and community-based initiatives. Intervention within the juvenile justice system. Role of the police. Processing and detention of youth offenders. Transferring youths to the adult judicial system. Residential placement of juveniles. The book includes background on the American juvenile court system, useful comparisons with the juvenile justice systems of other nations, and other important information for assessing this problem.

Criminal Recidivism

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Criminal Recidivism by Georgia Zara,David P. Farrington Book Summary:

Criminal Recidivism intends to fill a gap in the criminological psychology literature by examining the processes underlying persistent criminal careers. This book aims to investigate criminal recidivism, and why, how and for how long an individual continues to commit crimes, whilst also reviewing knowledge about risk assessment and the role of psychopathy (including neurocriminological factors) in encouraging recidivism. It also focuses on the recidivism of sex offenders and on what works in reducing reoffending. At an empirical level, this book attempts to explain criminal persistence and recidivism using longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). At a psycho-criminological level it joins together quantitative and qualitative analyses, making its content a practical guide to explain, predict, and intervene to reduce the risk of criminal recidivism. The authors present quantitative analyses of criminal careers, as well as qualitative life histories of chronic offenders, in order to bring home the reality and consequences of a life of crime. The book is aimed not only at advanced students and academics in psychology, criminology, probation studies, social sciences, psychiatry, sociology, political science, and penology, but also at decision makers, policy officials, and practitioners within the realm of crime intervention and prevention, and also at forensic experts, judges and lawyers.

Criminal Trajectories

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Criminal Trajectories by David M. Day,Margit Wiesner Book Summary:

An exploration of criminal trajectories, placing them in a developmental context Over the past several years, notions of developmental trajectories—particularly criminal trajectories—have taken hold as important areas of investigation for researchers interested in the longitudinal study of crime. This accessible volume presents the first full-length overview of criminal trajectories as a concept and methodology and makes the case for a developmental approach to the topic. The volume shows how a developmental perspective is important from a practical standpoint, helping to inform the design of prevention and early intervention programs to forestall the onset of antisocial and criminal activity, particularly when it begins in childhood. Crime in this view does not suit a one-size-fits-all model. There are different types of criminals who develop as the result of different types of developmental factors and experiences. By considering what risk factors may set the stage for later crimes in certain circumstances, the authors argue that we may be able to intervene at any point along the life course and, if addressed early enough, prevent criminal behavior from taking root. Criminal Trajectories offers a comprehensive synthesis of the findings from numerous criminal trajectory studies, presented through a multi-disciplinary lens. It addresses the policy and practice implications of these findings for the criminal justice system—including a critique of current sentencing and incarceration practices—and presents twelve recommendations informed by developmental frameworks for future work.

Corrections: A Text/Reader

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Corrections: A Text/Reader by Mary K. Stohr,Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens Book Summary:

Corrections: A Text/Reader, Second Edition is designed for undergraduate and/or graduate corrections courses. Organized like a traditional corrections text, it offers brief authored introductions in a mini-chapter format for each key Section, followed by carefully selected and edited original articles by leading scholars. This hybrid format – ensuring coverage of important material while emphasizing the significance of contemporary research - offers an excellent alternative which recognizes the impact and importance of new directions and policy in this field, and how these advances are determined by research.

The Oxford Handbook of Crime Prevention

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The Oxford Handbook of Crime Prevention by Brandon C. Welsh,David P. Farrington Book Summary:

How can a society prevent-not deter, not punish-but prevent crime? Criminal justice prevention, commonly called crime control, aims to prevent crime after an initial offence has been commited through anything from an arrest to a death penalty sentence. These traditional means have been frequently examined and their efficacy just as frequently questioned. Promising new forms of crime prevention have emerged and expanded as important components of an overall strategy to reduce crime. Crime prevention today has developed along three lines: interventions to improve the life chances of children and prevent them from embarking on a life of crime; programs and policies designed to ameliorate the social conditions and institutions that influence offending; and the modification or manipulation of the physical environment, products, or systems to reduce everyday opportunities for crime. Each strategy aims at preventing crime or criminal offending in the first instance - before the act has been committed. Each, importantly, takes place outside of the formal criminal justice system, representing an alternative, perhaps even socially progressive way to reduce crime. The Oxford Handbook of Crime Prevention is a comprehensive, up-to-date, and authoritative review of research on crime prevention. Bringing together top scholars in criminology, public policy, psychology, and sociology, this Handbook includes critical reviews of the main theories that form the basis of crime prevention, evidence-based assessments of the effectiveness of the most important interventions, and cross-cutting essays that examine implementation, evaluation methodology, and public policy. Covering the three major crime prevention strategies active today-developmental, community, and situational-this definitive volume addresses seriously and critically the ways in which the United States and the Western world have attempted, and should continue to strive for the of crime.

Crime and Public Policy

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Crime and Public Policy by James Q. Wilson,Joan Petersilia Book Summary:

Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency

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Juvenile Justice and Delinquency by David W. Springer,Albert R. Roberts Book Summary:

"Juvenile Justice and Delinquency" is the first text to comprehensively trace the progress toward resolving critical juvenile justice and delinquency issues, and to provide cutting-edge intervention strategies to effectively rehabilitate juvenile offenders and prevent delinquency. Historical, political, and legal trends are examined and critiqued, as well as the range of developmental, familial, and sociological theoretical explanations of juvenile delinquency. Current evidence-based practice, prevention strategies and programs, and juvenile justice treatment and policy alternatives are thoroughly explored.

Psychology in Prisons

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Psychology in Prisons by Graham J. Towl,David A. Crighton Book Summary:

Edited by the Head of Psychology for HM Prison Service and the National Probation Service, and fully updated to take account of structural changes within these Services, Psychology in Prisons takes an in-depth look at the work of psychologists in prisons strengthened by in-depth consideration of diversity issues such as age, gender, socio-economic group, sexuality and ethnicity. Focuses exclusively on the prison environment and prioritises practical information for practitioners working in prisons Contextualises psychological work in prisons, and covers evidence based practice in key areas such as drug misuse and sex offending Focused on the needs of the client group Features a section on the practicalities of psychological assessment and interventions

Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Sexual and reproductive health

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Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Sexual and reproductive health by Majid Ezzati Book Summary:

This publication gives a comprehensive assessment of scientific evidence about risk factors linked to diseases and human health hazards, which has important implications for public health policies. Topics discussed include: childhood and maternal undernutrition; nutritional and physiological risk factors; addictive substances; sexual and reproductive health; environmental and occupational risks, including air pollution, unsafe water and sanitation, and climate change; the distribution of risk factors by poverty; data analysis and results; multiple risk factor assessments; and future research. This publication comprises of three volumes: two volumes in hardcopy with a third volume containing annex tables in an accompanying CD-ROM.

The Primordial Violence

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The Primordial Violence by Murray A. Straus,Emily M. Douglas,Rose Anne Medeiros Book Summary:

A CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title 2014! Why do parents hit those they love? What effect does it have on children? What can be done to end this pattern? These are some of the questions explored in The Primordial Violence. Featuring longitudinal data from over 7,000 U.S. families as well as results from a 32 nation study, the book presents the latest research on the extent to which spanking is used in different cultures and the subsequent effects of its use on children and on society. Evidence that shows the relationship between spanking and the subsequent slowing of cognitive development and increase in antisocial and criminal behavior is shown. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are explored in an accessible fashion. An abundance of high quality research has produced findings that are highly consistent from study to study which show that spanking is a risk factor for aggressive behavior and other social and psychological problems. Because of these findings, the authors argue for policy changes and recommend a drastic reduction in the use of spanking. Policy and practical implications are explored in most chapters. The Primordial Violence highlights: The benefits of avoiding spanking such as the development of better interpersonal skills and higher academic achievement; The link between spanking and behavioral problems and crime; The extent to which spanking is declining and why despite the unusually high level of agreement between numerous studies which found harmful effects from spanking, most parents continue to spank. Part 1 documents the worldwide use of spanking and why parents spank. The possible adverse effects of spanking on children’s behavior and academic achievement, and the potential for violence and criminal behavior in later life, are explored in Parts 2, 3, and 4. Part 5 examines trends in spanking, and suggests what can be done to lower the percent of parents who spank. Contradictory opinions about whether to spank are explored. The book concludes with a call for change in this aspect of parenting which will have profound benefits, for the children and families involved, and society as a whole. Intended for a general audience of readers who are interested in child development and parenting and for advanced undergraduate and/or graduate courses in child abuse, family violence, juvenile delinquency, criminal behavior, social development, sociology of the family, or parenting and family relations taught in psychology, human development, family studies, criminology, education, social work, sociology, and social policy.

Children of Incarcerated Parents

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Children of Incarcerated Parents by Yvette R. Harris, PhD,James A. Graham, PhD Book Summary:

"This important book covers developmental outcomes of children in this predicament, parenting from prison, and family reunification. It is filled with research findings and addresses clinical issues as well. Many children are affected by a parent in the criminal justice system, and this book is sorely needed. The editors and contributors have produced a wonderful resource." Score: 94, 4 stars --Doody's This book serves as a comprehensive source for understanding and intervening with children of incarcerated parents. The text examines the daunting clinical implications inherent in trauma throughout development, as well as social and political roles in ameliorating intergenerational delinquency. It conceptualizes the problem by using an ecological framework that is focused on the experience of the child. Children of Incarcerated Parents addresses developmental and clinical issues experienced throughout the trajectory of childhood and adolescence with a focus on interventions and social policies to improve outcomes for this under-studied group. The chapters explore individual, community, and national levels of policy, programming, and legislation.

Prisoner Reentry in the Era of Mass Incarceration

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Prisoner Reentry in the Era of Mass Incarceration by Daniel P. Mears,Joshua C. Cochran Book Summary:

Understanding and Improving Prisoner Reentry Outcomes Prisoner Reentry is an engaging and comprehensive examination of prisoner reentry and how to improve public safety, well-being, and justice in the “era of mass incarceration.” Renowned authors Daniel P. Mears and Joshua C. Cochran investigate historical trends in incarceration and punishment policy, the salience of in-prison and post-prison contexts and experiences for reentry, and the importance of understanding group differences in offending, punishment, and social context. Using extensive reliance on both theory and empirical research, the authors identify how reentry reflects criminal justice policy in America and, at the same time, has profound implications for crime prevention and justice. Readers will develop a diverse foundation for current policies, identify the implications of reentry for families, community, and society at large, and gain a conceptual and empirical toolkit for analyzing and improving the lives of those released from prison.

Child Delinquents

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Child Delinquents by Rolf Loeber,David P. Farrington Book Summary:

Between 1980 and 1996 the number of arrests has increased considerably for offenders ages 12 and under. This increase is a cost to society in two ways: the cost of the crime and the cost of multiple agencies involved with these children. Several questions have developed due to this increase: How does the juvenile justice system deal with child delinquents? Is child delinquency a predictor of serious, violent, and chronic offending? How early can we predict delinquency, and what are early warning signs? Presenting empirically derived insights, Child Delinquents, is the definitive statement to date on the working knowledge with preteen offenders. This book is an excellent source for a broad audience of researchers, scholars, psychiatry, and practitioners at the administrative level.

Casebook on Human Dignity and Human Rights

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Casebook on Human Dignity and Human Rights by N.A Book Summary:

Download or read Casebook on Human Dignity and Human Rights book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Violence in Families

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Violence in Families by Committee on the Assessment of Family Violence Interventions,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council and Institute of Medicine Book Summary:

Reports of mistreated children, domestic violence, and abuse of elderly persons continue to strain the capacity of police, courts, social services agencies, and medical centers. At the same time, myriad treatment and prevention programs are providing services to victims and offenders. Although limited research knowledge exists regarding the effectiveness of these programs, such information is often scattered, inaccessible, and difficult to obtain. Violence in Families takes the first hard look at the successes and failures of family violence interventions. It offers recommendations to guide services, programs, policy, and research on victim support and assistance, treatments and penalties for offenders, and law enforcement. Included is an analysis of more than 100 evaluation studies on the outcomes of different kinds of programs and services. Violence in Families provides the most comprehensive review on the topic to date. It explores the scope and complexity of family violence, including identification of the multiple types of victims and offenders, who require different approaches to intervention. The book outlines new strategies that offer promising approaches for service providers and researchers and for improving the evaluation of prevention and treatment services. Violence in Families discusses issues that underlie all types of family violence, such as the tension between family support and the protection of children, risk factors that contribute to violent behavior in families, and the balance between family privacy and community interventions. The core of the book is a research-based review of interventions used in three institutional sectors--social services, health, and law enforcement settings--and how to measure their effectiveness in combating maltreatment of children, domestic violence, and abuse of the elderly. Among the questions explored by the committee: Does the child protective services system work? Does the threat of arrest deter batterers? The volume discusses the strength of the evidence and highlights emerging links among interventions in different institutional settings. Thorough, readable, and well organized, Violence in Families synthesizes what is known and outlines what needs to be discovered. This volume will be of great interest to policymakers, social services providers, health care professionals, police and court officials, victim advocates, researchers, and concerned individuals.

Child Protective Services

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Child Protective Services by Diane Depanfilis Book Summary:

Provides the foundation for casework practice in Child Protective Services (CPS). Describes the basic stages of the CPS process and the steps necessary to accomplish successfully each stage: intake, initial assessment/investigation, family assessment, case planning, service provision, and evaluation of family progress and case closure. Designed primarily for CPS caseworkers, supervisors, and administrators. Glossary. Bibiography.

Reforming Juvenile Justice

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Reforming Juvenile Justice by National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform Book Summary:

Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks. Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies. Evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during adolescence strongly suggests that these cognitive tendencies characteristic of adolescents are associated with biological immaturity of the brain and with an imbalance among developing brain systems. This imbalance model implies dual systems: one involved in cognitive and behavioral control and one involved in socio-emotional processes. Accordingly adolescents lack mature capacity for self-regulations because the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This knowledge of adolescent development has underscored important differences between adults and adolescents with direct bearing on the design and operation of the justice system, raising doubts about the core assumptions driving the criminalization of juvenile justice policy in the late decades of the 20th century. It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. The goal of Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach was to review recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and to assess the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts.

Facts for Life

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Facts for Life by N.A Book Summary:

The fourth edition of Facts for Life contains essential information that families and communities need to know to raise healthy children. This handbook provides practical advice on pregnancy, childbirth, childhood illnesses, child development and the care of children. This edition also features a new chapter on child protection. The book is intended for parents, families, health workers, teachers, youth groups, women's groups, community organisations, government officials, employers, trade unions, media, and non-governmental and faith-based organisations.

Education and Delinquency

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Education and Delinquency by National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice and Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control Book Summary:

The Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control convened a workshop on October 2, 1998, to explore issues related to educational performance, school climate, school practices, learning, student motivation and commitment to school, and their relationship to delinquency. The workshop was designed to bring together researchers and practitioners with a broad range of perspectives on the relationship between such specific issues as school safety and academic achievement and the development of delinquent behavior. Education and Delinquencyreviews recent research findings, identifies gaps in knowledge and promising areas of future research, and discusses the need for program evaluation and the integration of empirical research findings into program design.

Personality, Personality Disorder and Violence

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Personality, Personality Disorder and Violence by Mary McMurran,Richard Howard Book Summary:

Presents the evidence-base for links between personality traits,psychological functioning, personality disorder and violence - witha focus on assessment and treatment approaches that will helpclinicians to assess risk in this client group. An evidence-based examination of those personality traits andtypes of psychological functioning that may contribute topersonality disorder and violence- and the links that can be madebetween the two Each chapter tackles an area of personality or psychologicalfunctioning and includes a developmental perspective, discussion ofhow to gauge risk, and an outline of effective treatments Traits covered include impulsivity, aggressiveness, narcissismand the ‘Big Five’ - neuroticism, extraversion,openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness New for the prestigious Wiley Series in Forensic ClinicalPsychology, a market leader with more than 20,000 books inprint

World Report on Violence and Health

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World Report on Violence and Health by WHO,World Health Organization Book Summary:

This report is part of WHO's response to the 49th World Health Assembly held in 1996 which adopted a resolution declaring violence a major and growing public health problem across the world. It is aimed largely at researchers and practitioners including health care workers, social workers, educators and law enforcement officials.

Promoting Health

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Promoting Health by Institute of Medicine,Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Book Summary:

At the dawn of the twenty-first century, Americans enjoyed better overall health than at any other time in the nation’s history. Rapid advancements in medical technologies, breakthroughs in understanding the genetic underpinnings of health and ill health, improvements in the effectiveness and variety of pharmaceuticals, and other developments in biomedical research have helped develop cures for many illnesses and improve the lives of those with chronic diseases. By itself, however, biomedical research cannot address the most significant challenges to improving public health. Approximately half of all causes of mortality in the United States are linked to social and behavioral factors such as smoking, diet, alcohol use, sedentary lifestyle, and accidents. Yet less than five percent of the money spent annually on U.S. health care is devoted to reducing the risks of these preventable conditions. Behavioral and social interventions offer great promise, but as yet their potential has been relatively poorly tapped. Promoting Health identifies those promising areas of social science and behavioral research that may address public health needs. It includes 12 papersâ€"commissioned from some of the nation’s leading expertsâ€"that review these issues in detail, and serves to assess whether the knowledge base of social and behavioral interventions has been useful, or could be useful, in the development of broader public health interventions.

INSPIRE Handbook

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INSPIRE Handbook by World Health Organization Book Summary:

The INSPIRE handbook: action for implementing the seven strategies for ending violence against children explains in detail how to choose and implement interventions that will fit your needs and context. The seven strategy-specific chapters address the Implementation and enforcement of laws; Norms and values; Safe environments; Parent and caregiver support; Income and economic strengthening; Response and support services; and Education and life skills. The handbook concludes with a summary of INSPIRE?s implementation and impact indicators drawn from the companion INSPIRE indicator guidance and results framework.

The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century by Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention,Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public in the 21st Century Book Summary:

The anthrax incidents following the 9/11 terrorist attacks put the spotlight on the nation’s public health agencies, placing it under an unprecedented scrutiny that added new dimensions to the complex issues considered in this report. The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century reaffirms the vision of Healthy People 2010, and outlines a systems approach to assuring the nation’s health in practice, research, and policy. This approach focuses on joining the unique resources and perspectives of diverse sectors and entities and challenges these groups to work in a concerted, strategic way to promote and protect the public’s health. Focusing on diverse partnerships as the framework for public health, the book discusses: The need for a shift from an individual to a population-based approach in practice, research, policy, and community engagement. The status of the governmental public health infrastructure and what needs to be improved, including its interface with the health care delivery system. The roles nongovernment actors, such as academia, business, local communities and the media can play in creating a healthy nation. Providing an accessible analysis, this book will be important to public health policy-makers and practitioners, business and community leaders, health advocates, educators and journalists.

Gang Prevention

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Gang Prevention by James C. Howell Book Summary:

This report presents an overview of gang research and programs in the United States and examines how gangs form and why youth join them. It is based on information on research findings and prevention strategies disseminated by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention as part of its comprehensive anti-gang initiative. This report describes how community members can start assessing their gang problems and enhance prevention and intervention activities to help prevent delinquency and gang violence. It identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. Illustrations. This is a print on demand edition of an important, hard-to-find publication.

Preventing Crime

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Preventing Crime by Brandon C. Welsh,David P. Farrington Book Summary:

This book examines evidence-based crime prevention through the use of the rigorous methodology of systematic reviews. It brings together the leading scientific evidence on what works best for a wide range of interventions organized around four important domains in criminology: at-risk children, offenders, victims, and places. It is an indispensable guide to the leading scientific evidence on what works best to prevent crime.

Elder Abuse and Its Prevention

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Elder Abuse and Its Prevention by National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Global Violence Prevention Book Summary:

Elder Abuse and Its Prevention is the summary of a workshop convened in April 2013 by the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Global Violence Prevention. Using an ecological framework, this workshop explored the burden of elder abuse around the world, focusing on its impacts on individuals, families, communities, and societies. Additionally, the workshop addressed occurrences and co-occurrences of different types of abuse, including physical, sexual, emotional, and financial, as well as neglect. The ultimate objective was to illuminate promising global and multisectoral evidence-based approaches to the prevention of elder maltreatment. While the workshop covered scope and prevalence and unique characteristics of abuse, the intention was to move beyond what is known about elder abuse to foster discussions about how to improve prevention, intervention, and mitigation of the victims' needs, particularly through collaborative efforts. The workshop discussions included innovative intervention models and opportunities for prevention across sectors and settings. Violence and related forms of abuse against elders is a global public health and human rights problem with far-reaching consequences, resulting in increased death, disability, and exploitation with collateral effects on well-being. Data suggest that at least 10 percent of elders in the United States are victims of elder maltreatment every year. In low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of violence is the greatest, the figure is likely even higher. In addition, elders experiencing risk factors such as diminishing cognitive function, caregiver dependence, and social isolation are more vulnerable to maltreatment and underreporting. As the world population of adults aged 65 and older continues to grow, the implications of elder maltreatment for health care, social welfare, justice, and financial systems are great. However, despite the magnitude of global elder maltreatment, it has been an underappreciated public health problem. Elder Abuse and Its Prevention discusses the prevalence and characteristics of elder abuse around the world, risk factors for abuse and potential adverse health outcomes, and contextually specific factors, such as culture and the role of the community.

From Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

From Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime by Rolf Loeber,David P. Farrington Book Summary:

What makes a juvenile delinquent develop into an adult criminal? Edited by two leading authorities in the fields of psychology and criminology, Transitions from Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime examines why the period of transition to adulthood is important and how it can be better understood and addressed both inside and outside of the justice system. With serious scholarly analysis and practical policy proposals, this book addresses what can be done to ensure that today's juvenile delinquents do not become tomorrow's adult criminals.

21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook by J. Mitchell Miller Book Summary:

Criminology has experienced tremendous growth over the last few decades, evident, in part, by the widespread popularity and increased enrollment in criminology and criminal justice departments at the undergraduate and graduate levels across the U.S. and internationally. Evolutionary paradigmatic shift has accompanied this surge in definitional, disciplinary and pragmatic terms. Though long identified as a leading sociological specialty area, criminology has emerged as a stand-alone discipline in its own right, one that continues to grow and is clearly here to stay. Criminology, today, remains inherently theoretical but is also far more applied in focus and thus more connected to the academic and practitioner concerns of criminal justice and related professional service fields. Contemporary criminology is also increasingly interdisciplinary and thus features a broad variety of ideological orientations to and perspectives on the causes, effects and responses to crime. 21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook provides straightforward and definitive overviews of 100 key topics comprising traditional criminology and its modern outgrowths. The individual chapters have been designed to serve as a "first-look" reference source for most criminological inquires. Both connected to the sociological origins of criminology (i.e., theory and research methods) and the justice systems' response to crime and related social problems, as well as coverage of major crime types, this two-volume set offers a comprehensive overview of the current state of criminology. From student term papers and masters theses to researchers commencing literature reviews, 21st Century Criminology is a ready source from which to quickly access authoritative knowledge on a range of key issues and topics central to contemporary criminology. This two-volume set in the SAGE 21st Century Reference Series is intended to provide undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that will serve their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but not so much jargon, detail, or density as a journal article or research handbook chapter. 100 entries or "mini-chapters" highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in this field ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. Curricular-driven, chapters provide students with initial footholds on topics of interest in researching term papers, in preparing for GREs, in consulting to determine directions to take in pursuing a senior thesis, graduate degree, career, etc. Comprehensive in coverage, major sections include The Discipline of Criminology, Correlates of Crime, Theories of Crime & Justice, Measurement & Research, Types of Crime, and Crime & the Justice System. The contributor group is comprised of well-known figures and emerging young scholars who provide authoritative overviews coupled with insightful discussion that will quickly familiarize researchers, students, and general readers alike with fundamental and detailed information for each topic. Uniform chapter structure makes it easy for students to locate key information, with most chapters following a format of Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References. Availability in print and electronic formats provides students with convenient, easy access wherever they may be.

The World Health Report 2002

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

The World Health Report 2002 by World Health Organization Book Summary:

The world is living dangerously - either because it has little choice or because it is making the wrong choices -- Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland WHO Director-General

Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age by David P. Farrington,Alex R. Piquero,Wesley G. Jennings Book Summary:

Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age is a timely volume by leading researchers in Life Course Criminology, which reports new findings from The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8 in 1961. The main aim of the study is to advance knowledge about criminal careers up to age 56. At the time of these most recent findings, forty-two percent of the males were convicted, with an average ten-year conviction career. Only seven percent of the males accounted for half of all convictions. Almost all of the males (93 percent) reported committing an offense in four age ranges, compared with 29 percent who were convicted at these ages. There were on average of 39 self-reported offenses per conviction. Group-based trajectory analyses indicated that, while there were distinct groups of offenders who followed different age-crime trajectories between ages 10 and 56, five groups best characterized the criminal careers of the men, with two groups, high adolescence peak and high rate chronic, exhibiting the most offending. Also, the offending trajectories were predicted by individual and environmental childhood risk factors, with the most chronic offenders (to age 56) having the most extreme scores on childhood risk. Based on these results, risk assessment instruments could be developed and risk-focused prevention could be implemented in early childhood, including parent training, pre-school intellectual enrichment programs and home visiting programs, in order to prevent chronic styles of offending from being initiated. This work will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, especially those with an interest in life course criminology and crime prevention, while also being of use as a research framework for other studies.​ It will also be of interest to researchers in sociology, psychology, and other social sciences, as well as policy makers and practitioners. “This is a ‘must read’ for anyone seeking to understand the development and course of crime from childhood through adulthood. Comparative analyses of officially recorded and self-reported offending and analyses of the predictive power of childhood risks to distinguish offending trajectories are important contributions of this new milestone in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.” J. David Hawkins, Ph.D., Endowed Professor of Prevention, Social Development Research Group, School of Social Work, University of Washington “For more than four decades the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development has been a guiding light for research on what has come to be called developmental criminology. This latest installment is still another demonstration of the importance of this seminal study.” Daniel S. Nagin, Teresa and H. John Heinz III University Professor of Public Policy and Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University

Promoting Health, Preventing Disease

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Promoting Health, Preventing Disease by David McDaid,F. Sassi,Merkur Book Summary:

This book provides an economic perspective on health promotion and chronic disease prevention, and gives a rationale for assessing the economic case for action. It provides a comprehensive review of the evidence base in support of a broad range of public health interventions, addressing not only their effectiveness in improving population health, but also their implementation costs, impacts on health expenditures and wider economic consequences. An economic perspective is about more than counting the costs associated with poor health. It is about understanding how economic incentives can influence healthy lifestyle choices in the population. The book provides tools for developing effective and efficient policy strategies and addressing trade-offs between the goals of improving population health, while being mindful of the need to tackle inequalities in health outcomes across individuals and populations. The book: practically illustrates methods and measures of cost and outcome used in the evaluation of interventions covers specific risk factor areas including tobacco smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, poor mental health and harmful environmental factors considers cross-cutting themes including key implementation issues, health inequalities, and the merits of early life interventions The book is designed for health policy makers and all those working or studying in the areas of public health, health research, medicine or health economics.

Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments

Saving Children From A Life Of Crime Early Risk Factors And Effective Interventions [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments by Annette Prüss-Üstün,Jennyfer Wolf,Carlos Corvalán,World Health Organization,Robert Bos,Dr. Maria Neira Book Summary:

"The main message emerging from this new comprehensive global assessment is that premature death and disease can be prevented through healthier environments--and to a significant degree. Analysing the latest data on the environment-disease nexus and the devastating impact of environmental hazards and risks on global health, backed up by expert opinion, this report covers more than 130 diseases and injuries. The analysis shows that 23% of global deaths (and 26% of deaths among children under five) are due to modifiable environmental factors--and therefore can be prevented. Stroke, ischaemic heart disease, diarrhoea and cancers head the list. People in low-income countries bear the greatest disease burden, with the exception of noncommunicable diseases. The report's unequivocal evidence should add impetus to coordinating global efforts to promote healthy environments--often through well-established, cost-effective interventions. This analysis will inform those who want to better understand the transformational spirit of the Sustainable Development Goals agreed by Heads of State in September 2015. The results of the analysis underscore the pressing importance of stronger intersectoral action to create healthier environments that will contribute to sustainably improving the lives of millions around the world."--Page 4 of cover.