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Rousseau And Hobbes Nature Free Will And The Passions

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Rousseau and Hobbes

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Rousseau and Hobbes by Robin Douglass Book Summary:

Robin Douglass presents the first comprehensive study of the relationship between Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, two of the most important figures in the history of modern political thought. It supplies a detailed historical study of Rousseau's engagement with Hobbes in its intellectual context, while exploring and evaluating the most important philosophical differences between the two thinkers. The book advances an original interpretation of Rousseau'spolitical philosophy, placing central emphasis on the themes of nature, free will, and the passions, which challenges many existing interpretations of Rousseau, especially those that have read him asforerunner of Immanuel Kant.

The Opinion of Mankind

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The Opinion of Mankind by Paul Sagar Book Summary:

How David Hume and Adam Smith forged a new way of thinking about the modern state What is the modern state? Conspicuously undertheorized in recent political theory, this question persistently animated the best minds of the Enlightenment. Recovering David Hume and Adam Smith's long-underappreciated contributions to the history of political thought, The Opinion of Mankind considers how, following Thomas Hobbes's epochal intervention in the mid-seventeenth century, subsequent thinkers grappled with explaining how the state came into being, what it fundamentally might be, and how it could claim rightful authority over those subject to its power. Hobbes has cast a long shadow over Western political thought, particularly regarding the theory of the state. This book shows how Hume and Smith, the two leading lights of the Scottish Enlightenment, forged an alternative way of thinking about the organization of modern politics. They did this in part by going back to the foundations: rejecting Hobbes's vision of human nature and his arguments about our capacity to form stable societies over time. In turn, this was harnessed to a deep reconceptualization of how to think philosophically about politics in a secular world. The result was an emphasis on the "opinion of mankind," the necessary psychological basis of all political organization. Demonstrating how Hume and Smith broke away from Hobbesian state theory, The Opinion of Mankind also suggests ways in which these thinkers might shape how we think about politics today, and in turn how we might construct better political theory.

Hobbes on Politics and Religion

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Hobbes on Politics and Religion by Laurens van Apeldoorn,Robin Douglass Book Summary:

Thomas Hobbes, one of the most important figures in the history of political philosophy, is still widely regarded as a predominantly secular thinker. Yet a great deal of his political thought was motivated by the need to address problems of a distinctively religious nature. This is the first collection of essays dedicated to the complex and rich intersections between Hobbes's political and religious thought. Written by experts in the field, the volume opens up new directions for thinking about his treatment of religion as a political phenomenon and the political dimensions of his engagement with Christian doctrines and their history. The chapters investigate his strategies for showing how his provocative political positions could be accepted by different religious audiences for whom fidelity to religious texts was of crucial importance, while also considering the legacy of his ideas and examining their relevance for contemporary concerns. Some chapters do so by pursuing mainly historical inquiries about the motives and circumstances of Hobbes's writings, while others reconstruct the logic of his arguments and test their philosophical coherence. They thus offer wide-ranging and sometimes conflicting assessments of Hobbes's ideas, yet they all demonstrate how closely intertwined his political and religious preoccupations are and thereby showcase how this perspective can help us to better understand his thought.

Hobbes

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Hobbes by Leo Strauss,Alfred Edward Taylor Book Summary:

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A Discourse Upon the Origin and Foundation of the Inequality Among Mankind

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A Discourse Upon the Origin and Foundation of the Inequality Among Mankind by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book Summary:

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Made with Words

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Made with Words by Philip Pettit Book Summary:

Hobbes's extreme political views have commanded so much attention that they have eclipsed his work on language and mind, and on reasoning, personhood, and group formation. But this work is of immense interest in itself, as Philip Pettit shows in Made with Words, and it critically shapes Hobbes's political philosophy. Pettit argues that it was Hobbes, not later thinkers like Rousseau, who invented the invention of language thesis--the idea that language is a cultural innovation that transformed the human mind. The invention, in Hobbes's story, is a double-edged sword. It enables human beings to reason, commit themselves as persons, and incorporate in groups. But it also allows them to agonize about the future and about their standing relative to one another; it takes them out of the Eden of animal silence and into a life of inescapable conflict--the state of nature. Still, if language leads into this wasteland, according to Hobbes, it can also lead out. It can enable people to establish a commonwealth where the words of law and morality have a common, enforceable sense, and where people can invoke the sanctions of an absolute sovereign to give their words to one another in credible commitment and contract. Written by one of today's leading philosophers, Made with Words is both an original reinterpretation and a clear and lively introduction to Hobbes's thought.

Thinking with Rousseau

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Thinking with Rousseau by Helena Rosenblatt,Paul Schweigert Book Summary:

Rousseau's relation to the Western intellectual tradition is re-examined through a series of 'conversations' between Rousseau and other 'great thinkers'.

Rousseau, the Age of Enlightenment, and Their Legacies

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Rousseau, the Age of Enlightenment, and Their Legacies by Robert Wokler Book Summary:

Robert Wokler was one of the world's leading experts on Rousseau and the Enlightenment, but some of his best work was published in the form of widely scattered and difficult-to-find essays. This book collects for the first time a representative selection of his most important essays on Rousseau and the legacy of Enlightenment political thought. These essays concern many of the great themes of the age, including liberty, equality and the origins of revolution. But they also address a number of less prominent debates, including those over cosmopolitanism, the nature and social role of music and the origins of the human sciences in the Enlightenment controversy over the relationship between humans and the great apes. These essays also explore Rousseau's relationships to Rameau, Pufendorf, Voltaire and Marx; reflect on the work of important earlier scholars of the Enlightenment, including Ernst Cassirer and Isaiah Berlin; and examine the influence of the Enlightenment on the twentieth century. One of the central themes of the book is a defense of the Enlightenment against the common charge that it bears responsibility for the Terror of the French Revolution, the totalitarian regimes of the twentieth-century and the Holocaust.

Rousseau's Reader

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Rousseau's Reader by John T. Scott Book Summary:

"This book examines the techniques that Rousseau used to engage and persuade his readers. Considering several important works, including Emilie, The Discourse on Inequality, and The Social Contract, John Scott, a well-known scholar of Rousseau, explores the different rhetorical and literary strategies that he uses to interest, draw in, and persuade the reader of his ideas. Keeping in mind that Rousseau was concerned with education, understanding the relationship between his literary and rhetorical techniques and the substance of his thought is necessary to understanding Rousseau's project and who he intended to reach. Most political philosophers focus naturally on his ideas; others argue that the way he conveyed them is itself important. Scott gives us the key to understanding the significance of Rousseau's style"--

Savages, Romans, and Despots

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Savages, Romans, and Despots by Robert Launay Book Summary:

From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, Europeans struggled to understand their identity in the same way we do as individuals: by comparing themselves to others. In Savages, Romans, and Despots, Robert Launay takes us on a fascinating tour of early modern and modern history in an attempt to untangle how various depictions of “foreign” cultures and civilizations saturated debates about religion, morality, politics, and art. Beginning with Mandeville and Montaigne, and working through Montesquieu, Diderot, Gibbon, Herder, and others, Launay traces how Europeans both admired and disdained unfamiliar societies in their attempts to work through the inner conflicts of their own social worlds. Some of these writers drew caricatures of “savages,” “Oriental despots,” and “ancient” Greeks and Romans. Others earnestly attempted to understand them. But, throughout this history, comparative thinking opened a space for critical reflection. At its worst, such space could give rise to a sense of European superiority. At its best, however, it could prompt awareness of the value of other ways of being in the world. Launay’s masterful survey of some of the Western tradition’s finest minds offers a keen exploration of the genesis of the notion of “civilization,” as well as an engaging portrait of the promises and perils of cross-cultural comparison.

Natural Right and History

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Natural Right and History by Leo Strauss Book Summary:

Six lectures delivered at the University of Chicago, Autumn, 1949, under the auspices of the Charles R. Walgreen Foundation for the Study of American Institutions.

Hobbes Today

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Hobbes Today by S. A. Lloyd Book Summary:

Hobbes Today: Insights for the 21st Century brings together an impressive group of political philosophers, legal theorists and political scientists to investigate the many ways in which the work of Thomas Hobbes, the famed seventeenth-century English philosopher, can illuminate the political and social problems we face today. Its essays demonstrate the contemporary relevance of Hobbes' political thought on such issues as justice, human rights, public reason, international warfare, punishment, fiscal policy and the design of positive law, among others. The volume's contributors include both Hobbes specialists and philosophers bringing their expertise to consideration of Hobbes' texts for the first time. This volume will stimulate renewed interest in Hobbes studies among a new generation of thinkers.

A Treatise on the Social Compact

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A Treatise on the Social Compact by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book Summary:

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The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy

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The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy by Gerald F. Gaus,Fred D'Agostino Book Summary:

The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy is a comprehensive, definitive reference work, providing an up-to-date survey of the field, charting its history and key figures and movements, and addressing enduring questions as well as contemporary research. Features unique to the Companion are: an extensive coverage of the history of social and political thought, including separate chapters on the development of political thought in the Islamic world, India, and China as well in modern Germany, France, and Britain a focus on the core concepts and the normative foundations of social and political theory a seven-chapter section devoted exclusively to distributive justice, the central issue of political philosophy since Rawls' Theory of Justice extensive coverage of global justice and international issues, which recently have emerged as vital topics an eight-chapter section on issues in social and political philosophy. The Companion is divided into eight thematic sections: The History of Social and Political Theory; Political Theories and Ideologies; Normative Foundations; The National State and Beyond; Distributive Justice; Political Concepts; Concepts and Methods in Social Philosophy; Issues in Social and Political Philosophy. Comprised of sixty-nine newly commissioned essays by leading scholars from throughout the world, The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy is the most comprehensive and authoritative resource in social and political philosophy for students and scholars.

History of the Theory of Sovereignty Since Rousseau

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History of the Theory of Sovereignty Since Rousseau by Charles Edward Merriam Book Summary:

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Rousseau and the Problem of Human Relations

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Rousseau and the Problem of Human Relations by John M. Warner Book Summary:

In this volume, John Warner grapples with one of Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s chief preoccupations: the problem of self-interest implicit in all social relationships. Not only did Rousseau never solve this problem, Warner argues, but he also believed it was fundamentally unsolvable—that social relationships could never restore wholeness to a self-interested human being. This engaging study is founded on two basic but important questions: what do we want out of human relationships, and are we able to achieve what we are after? Warner traces his answers through the contours of Rousseau’s thought on three distinct types of relationships—sexual love, friendship, and civil or political association—as well as alternate interpretations of Rousseau, such as that of the neo-Kantian Rawlsian school. The result is an insightful exploration of the way Rousseau inspires readers to imbue social relations with purpose and meaning, only to show the impossibility of reaching wholeness through such relationships. While Rousseau may raise our hopes only to dash them, Rousseau and the Problem of Human Relations demonstrates that his ambitious failure offers unexpected insight into the human condition and into the limits of Rousseau’s critical act.

Earth Law

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Earth Law by Anthony R. Zelle,Grant Wilson,Rachelle Adam,Herman F. Greene Book Summary:

"This book is a collaborative effort by more than twenty law school professors and thought leaders across the globe. In addition to providing a text for a semester-long classroom curriculum, the book will include a compendium of ecocentric law that will serve as a comprehensive reference for practitioners"--

The Oxford Handbook of Hobbes

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The Oxford Handbook of Hobbes by Kinch Hoekstra Book Summary:

The Oxford Handbook of Hobbes collects twenty-six newly commissioned, original chapters on the philosophy of the English thinker Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679). Best known today for his important influence on political philosophy, Hobbes was in fact a wide and deep thinker on a diverse range of issues. The chapters included in this Oxford Handbook cover the full range of Hobbes's thought--his philosophy of logic and language; his view of physics and scientific method; his ethics, political philosophy, and philosophy of law; and his views of religion, history, and literature. Several of the chapters overlap in fruitful ways, so that the reader can see the richness and depth of Hobbes's thought from a variety of perspectives. The contributors are experts on Hobbes from many countries, whose home disciplines include philosophy, political science, history, and literature. A substantial introduction places Hobbes's work, and contemporary scholarship on Hobbes, in a broad context.

Hobbes's On the Citizen

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Hobbes's On the Citizen by Robin Douglass,Johan Olsthoorn Book Summary:

The first book-length study in English of Thomas Hobbes's On the Citizen, containing twelve original essays by leading Hobbes scholars.

Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy

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Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy by John Rawls Book Summary:

Constantly revised and refined over three decades, Rawls's lectures on various historical figures reflect his developing and changing views on the history of liberalism and democracy. With its careful analyses of the doctrine of the social contract, utilitarianism, and socialism, this volume has a critical place in the traditions it expounds.

Before Anarchy

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Before Anarchy by N.A Book Summary:

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Rousseau's Response to Hobbes

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Rousseau's Response to Hobbes by Howard R. Cell,James I. MacAdam,Jim MacAdam Book Summary:

A collection of critical essays by two different authors but with one common purpose: to consider the response of Jean-Jacques Rousseau to the challenges posed in the political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. Specifically, we discuss the origin and development of Rousseau's response to Hobbes, the importance of that response for some of Rousseau's key concepts, and at least two directions in which further consideration of that response would be especially fruitful. Given this purpose, our collection of essays is addressed to those interested in the history of modern political philosophy.

Judge of Jean-Jacques - Dialogues

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Judge of Jean-Jacques - Dialogues by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book Summary:

Rousseau's complete work, unified in English for the first time, premiers with an original translation of his Dialogues

Eros in Plato, Rousseau, and Nietzsche

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Eros in Plato, Rousseau, and Nietzsche by Laurence D. Cooper Book Summary:

Human beings are restless souls, ever driven by an insistent inner force not only to have more but to be more&—to be infinitely more. Various philosophers have emphasized this type of ceaseless striving in their accounts of humanity, as in Spinoza&’s notion of conatus and Hobbes&’s identification of &“a perpetual and restless desire of power after power.&” In this book, Laurence Cooper focuses his attention on three giants of the philosophic tradition for whom this inner force was a major preoccupation and something separate from and greater than the desire for self-preservation. Cooper&’s overarching purpose is to illuminate the nature of this source of existential longing and discontent and its implications for political life. He concentrates especially on what these thinkers share in their understanding of this psychic power and how they view it ambivalently as the root not only of ambition, vigorous virtue, patriotism, and philosophy, but also of tyranny, imperialism, and varieties of fanaticism. But he is not neglectful of the differences among their interpretations of the phenomenon, either, and especially highlights these in the concluding chapter.

Discourse on the Arts and Sciences

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Discourse on the Arts and Sciences by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book Summary:

Censored in its own time, the Social Contract (1762) remains a key source of democratic belief and is one of the classics of political theory. It argues concisely but eloquently, that the basis of any legitimate society must be the agreement of its members. As humans we were 'born free' and our subjection to government must be freely accepted. Rousseau is essentially a radical thinker, and in a broad sense a revolutionary. He insisted on the sovereignty of the people, and made some provocative statements that are still highly controversial. His greatest contribution to political thought is the concept of the general will, which unites individuals through their common self-interest, thus validating the society in which they live and the constraints it imposes on them. This new translation is fully annotated and indexed. The volume also contains the opening chapter of the manuscript version of the Contract, together with the long article on Political Economy, a work traditionally between the Contract and Rousseau's earlier masterpiece, the Discourse on Inequality.

A Theory of Justice

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A Theory of Justice by John RAWLS Book Summary:

Though the revised edition of A Theory of Justice, published in 1999, is the definitive statement of Rawls's view, so much of the extensive literature on Rawls's theory refers to the first edition. This reissue makes the first edition once again available for scholars and serious students of Rawls's work.

Political Legitimization without Morality?

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Political Legitimization without Morality? by Jörg Kühnelt Book Summary:

The initial idea for this anthology arose during my work at the interdisciplinary Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 485 Norm and Symbol at the University of Konstanz. My research project on the potential of Hobbesian contract theory was in?uenced by the focus of the SFB on social phenomena such as pluralism and cultural change. In this context, I realized that the Hobbesian idea to refer only to instrumental rationality and basic egoistic interests to legitimize a state has, on one hand some advantages for pluralistic societies: All individuals are supposed to share these premises independent of the personal values they might hold. On the other hand, a rational legitimization must cope with the fundamental problem of explaining and legitimizing those tasks of legal states that go beyond the idea of a minimal state. Although my research was focused on the idea of solving this problem with a modi?cation of the Hobbesian argument, I became interested in the more general question of which role morality could or should play in legitimizing a state. Within the current discussion, not only rational but also political accounts of legitimacy can be attractive as soon as they try to avoid contentious normative premises. To analyse some of the core ideas within the current discussion, I - ganized an interdisciplinary workshop at the University of Konstanz in December 2004 in which different perspectives from sociology, politics and philosophy were compared and analysed.

Rousseau's Critique of Inequality

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Rousseau's Critique of Inequality by Frederick Neuhouser Book Summary:

This book evaluates Rousseau's arguments concerning why inequality exists in society and why it poses dangers to human well-being.

The Political Philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau

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The Political Philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau by Mads Qvortrup,Matt Qvortrup Book Summary:

This title presents an overview of Rousseau's work from a political science perspective. Was the great theorist of the French Revolution really a conservative? The text argues that the author of 'The Social Contract' was a constitutionalist closer to Montesquieu and Locke than to revolutionaries.

Disability and Political Theory

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Disability and Political Theory by Barbara Arneil,Nancy J. Hirschmann Book Summary:

A groundbreaking volume from leading scholars exploring disability studies using a political theory approach.

Sade’s Philosophical System in its Enlightenment Context

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Sade’s Philosophical System in its Enlightenment Context by Henry Martyn Lloyd Book Summary:

This book connects the philosophy of the Marquis de Sade—one of the most notorious, iconic, and yet poorly-understood figures within the history of European thought—with the broader themes of the Enlightenment. Rather than seeing himself as a mere pornographer, Sade understood himself as continuing the progressive tradition of French Enlightenment philosophy. Sade aspired to be a philosophe. This book uses intellectual history and the history of philosophy to reconstruct Sade’s philosophical ‘system’ and its historical context. Within the period’s discourse of sensibility Sade draws on the philosophical and the literary to form a relatively sophisticated ‘system’ which he deploys to critically engage with the two major strands of eighteenth-century ethical theory: the moral sense and natural law traditions. This work is of interest to: ‘Continental’ Philosophy, Critical Theory, French Studies, the History of Eighteenth-Century Philosophy, Literary Studies, the History of Moral Philosophy, and Enlightenment Studies.

The Philosophical Theory of the State

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The Philosophical Theory of the State by Bernard Bosanquet Book Summary:

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Nature and Politics

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Nature and Politics by Andrzej Rapaczynski Book Summary:

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Submission and Subjection in Leviathan

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Submission and Subjection in Leviathan by M. Byron Book Summary:

Leviathan invests the sovereign with nearly absolute power, and that vast sovereign has drawn the reader's eye for 350 years. Yet Hobbes has much to say about subjects as well, and he articulates a normative conception of a good subject.

A Discourse on Inequality

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A Discourse on Inequality by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book Summary:

A fascinating examination of the relationship between civilization and inequality from one of history’s greatest minds The first man to erect a fence around a piece of land and declare it his own founded civil society—and doomed mankind to millennia of war and famine. The dawn of modern civilization, argues Jean-Jacques Rousseau in this essential treatise on human nature, was also the beginning of inequality. One of the great thinkers of the Enlightenment, Rousseau based his work in compassion for his fellow man. The great crime of despotism, he believed, was the raising of the cruel above the weak. In this landmark text, he spells out the antidote for man’s ills: a compassionate revolution to pull up the fences and restore the balance of mankind. This ebook has been professionally proofread to ensure accuracy and readability on all devices.

Jean Jaques Rousseau's Concept of Society and Government: A Study of the Social Contract

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Jean Jaques Rousseau's Concept of Society and Government: A Study of the Social Contract by Andrea Becker,Maren Reyelt Book Summary:

Seminar paper from the year 2001 in the subject Politics - Political Theory and the History of Ideas Journal, grade: 1 - (A-), University of Wyoming (Department of Political Science), course: Recent Political Thought, language: English, abstract: “Man is born free and, and everywhere he is in chains. One believes himself the other’s master, and yet is more a slave than they. How did this change come about? I do not know. What can it make legitimate? I believe I can solve this.”1 Regarding this quoted statement, Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Of the Social Contract or Principles of Political Right (in the following referred to as the Social Contract) of 1762 tries to explain and solve the problems of the society Rousseau lived in with the idea of a somewhat direct democracy and a radical popular sovereignty. Accordingly, the author’s theory is the counterpart to the early liberal Montesquieuian model of a state with a binding constitution, but also to the later classical liberal theories of democracy of John Stuart Mill. In general, Rousseau is known as a representative of the concept of direct democracy and as an intercessor of the identity of governors and the governed. Moreover, he pledged for the inseparability of popular sovereignty. 2 Taking this into consideration, Rousseau’s Social Contract – although censored and prohibited in his own time – remains a key source of democratic belief and is one of the classics of political theory. His theories were viewed so controversially that they were even publicly burned. So, the Social Contract and Emile or on Education (1762) became victims of the flames.3 This was, because basically, the Social Contract argues, that “the first and the most important consequences of the principles established so far is that the general will [volonté générale] alone can direct the forces of the state according to the end of its institution, which is the common good.”4 1 Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract and Other Later Political Writings, edited and translated by Victor Gourevitch, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought), 1997, Book I, p. 41. 2 Manfred G. Schmidt: Demokratietheorien. Eine Einführung, 2. Auflage, Opladen: Leske + Budrich, 1997, pp. 23-24. 3 Merle L. Perkins: Jean-Jacques Rousseau on the Individual and Society, Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1974, p. 239. 4 Rousseau: The Social Contract, Book II, p. 57.

The Free Animal

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The Free Animal by Lee MacLean Book Summary:

Featuring careful analyses and an extensive engagement with the secondary literature, The Free Animal offers a novel interpretation of the changing nature and complexity of Rousseau's intention.