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Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach

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Introduction to Cyber-Warfare

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Introduction to Cyber-Warfare by Paulo Shakarian,Jana Shakarian,Andrew Ruef Book Summary:

Introduction to Cyber-Warfare: A Multidisciplinary Approach, written by experts on the front lines, gives you an insider's look into the world of cyber-warfare through the use of recent case studies. The book examines the issues related to cyber warfare not only from a computer science perspective but from military, sociological, and scientific perspectives as well. You'll learn how cyber-warfare has been performed in the past as well as why various actors rely on this new means of warfare and what steps can be taken to prevent it. Provides a multi-disciplinary approach to cyber-warfare, analyzing the information technology, military, policy, social, and scientific issues that are in play Presents detailed case studies of cyber-attack including inter-state cyber-conflict (Russia-Estonia), cyber-attack as an element of an information operations strategy (Israel-Hezbollah,) and cyber-attack as a tool against dissidents within a state (Russia, Iran) Explores cyber-attack conducted by large, powerful, non-state hacking organizations such as Anonymous and LulzSec Covers cyber-attacks directed against infrastructure, such as water treatment plants and power-grids, with a detailed account of Stuxent

Introduction to Cyber-Warfare

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Introduction to Cyber-Warfare by Paulo Shakarian,Jana Shakarian,Andrew Ruef Book Summary:

This book examines the issues related to cyber warfare not only from a computer science perspective but from military, sociological, and scientific perspectives as well.

Multigenerational Online Behavior and Media Use: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Multigenerational Online Behavior and Media Use: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications by Management Association, Information Resources Book Summary:

The rapid evolution of technology continuously changes the way people interact, work, and learn. By examining these advances from a sociological perspective, researchers can further understand the impact of cyberspace on human behavior, interaction, and cognition. Multigenerational Online Behavior and Media Use: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications is a vital reference source covering the impact of social networking platforms on a variety of relationships, including those between individuals, governments, citizens, businesses, and consumers. The publication also highlights the negative behavioral, physical, and mental effects of increased online usage and screen time such as mental health issues, internet addiction, and body image. Showcasing a range of topics including online dating, smartphone dependency, and cyberbullying, this multi-volume book is ideally designed for sociologists, psychologists, computer scientists, engineers, communication specialists, academicians, researchers, and graduate-level students seeking current research on media usage and its behavioral effects.

Strategic Cyber Security

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Strategic Cyber Security by N.A Book Summary:

Download or read Strategic Cyber Security book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Cyber Warfare: A Documentary and Reference Guide

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Cyber Warfare: A Documentary and Reference Guide by Paul J. Springer Book Summary:

Providing an invaluable introductory resource for students studying cyber warfare, this book highlights the evolution of cyber conflict in modern times through dozens of key primary source documents related to its development and implementation. This meticulously curated primary source collection is designed to offer a broad examination of key documents related to cyber warfare, covering the subject from multiple perspectives. The earliest documents date from the late 20th century, when the concept and possibility of cyber attacks became a reality, while the most recent documents are from 2019. Each document is accompanied by an introduction and analysis written by an expert in the field that provides the necessary context for readers to learn about the complexities of cyber warfare. The title's nearly 100 documents are drawn primarily but not exclusively from government sources and allow readers to understand how policy, strategy, doctrine, and tactics of cyber warfare are created and devised, particularly in the United States. Although the United States is the global leader in cyber capabilities and is largely driving the determination of norms within the cyber domain, the title additionally contains a small number of international documents. This invaluable work will serve as an excellent starting point for anyone seeking to understand the nature and character of international cyber warfare. Covers in detail one of the defining forms of conflict of the 21st century—cyber warfare will significantly impact virtually every American citizen over the next two decades Provides more than 90 primary source documents and matching analysis, allowing readers to investigate the underpinnings of cyber warfare Enables readers to see the development of different concepts of cyber warfare through its chronological organization Reflects the deep knowledge of an editor who is a noted expert in cyber warfare and has taught for the United States Air Force for more than a decade

Studies Combined: Cyber Warfare In Cyberspace - National Defense, Workforce And Legal Issues

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Studies Combined: Cyber Warfare In Cyberspace - National Defense, Workforce And Legal Issues by N.A Book Summary:

Just a sample of the contents ... contains over 2,800 total pages .... PROSPECTS FOR THE RULE OF LAW IN CYBERSPACE Cyberwarfare and Operational Art CYBER WARFARE GOVERNANCE: EVALUATION OF CURRENT INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS ON THE OFFENSIVE USE OF CYBER Cyber Attacks and the Legal Justification for an Armed Response UNTYING OUR HANDS: RECONSIDERING CYBER AS A SEPARATE INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL POWER Effects-Based Operations in the Cyber Domain Recommendations for Model-Driven Paradigms for Integrated Approaches to Cyber Defense MILLENNIAL WARFARE IGNORING A REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS: THE NEED TO CREATE A SEPARATE BRANCH OF THE ARMED FORCES FOR CYBER WARFARE SPECIAL OPERATIONS AND CYBER WARFARE LESSONS FROM THE FRONT: A CASE STUDY OF RUSSIAN CYBER WARFARE ADAPTING UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE DOCTRINE TO CYBERSPACE OPERATIONS: AN EXAMINATION OF HACKTIVIST BASED INSURGENCIES Addressing Human Factors Gaps in Cyber Defense Airpower History and the Cyber Force of the Future How Organization for the Cyber Domain Outpaced Strategic Thinking and Forgot the Lessons of the Past THE COMMAND OF THE TREND: SOCIAL MEDIA AS A WEAPON IN THE INFORMATION AGE SPYING FOR THE RIGHT REASONS: CONTESTED NORMS IN CYBERSPACE AIR FORCE CYBERWORX REPORT: REMODELING AIR FORCE CYBER COMMAND & CONTROL THE CYBER WAR: MAINTAINING AND CONTROLLING THE “KEY CYBER TERRAIN” OF THE CYBERSPACE DOMAIN WHEN NORMS FAIL: NORTH KOREA AND CYBER AS AN ELEMENT OF STATECRAFT AN ANTIFRAGILE APPROACH TO PREPARING FOR CYBER CONFLICT AIR FORCE CYBER MISSION ASSURANCE SOURCES OF MISSION UNCERTAINTY Concurrency Attacks and Defenses Cyber Workforce Retention Airpower Lessons for an Air Force Cyber-Power Targeting ¬Theory IS BRINGING BACK WARRANT OFFICERS THE ANSWER? A LOOK AT HOW THEY COULD WORK IN THE AIR FORCE CYBER OPERATIONS CAREER FIELD NEW TOOLS FOR A NEW TERRAIN AIR FORCE SUPPORT TO SPECIAL OPERATIONS IN THE CYBER ENVIRONMENT Learning to Mow Grass: IDF Adaptations to Hybrid Threats CHINA’S WAR BY OTHER MEANS: UNVEILING CHINA’S QUEST FOR INFORMATION DOMINANCE THE ISLAMIC STATE’S TACTICS IN SYRIA: ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN SHIFTING A PEACEFUL ARAB SPRING INTO TERRORISM NON-LETHAL WEAPONS: THE KEY TO A MORE AGGRESSIVE STRATEGY TO COMBAT TERRORISM THOUGHTS INVADE US: LEXICAL COGNITION AND CYBERSPACE The Cyber Threat to Military Just-In-Time Logistics: Risk Mitigation and the Return to Forward Basing PROSPECTS FOR THE RULE OF LAW IN CYBERSPACE Cyberwarfare and Operational Art CYBER WARFARE GOVERNANCE: EVALUATION OF CURRENT INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS ON THE OFFENSIVE USE OF CYBER Cyber Attacks and the Legal Justification for an Armed Response UNTYING OUR HANDS: RECONSIDERING CYBER AS A SEPARATE INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL POWER Effects-Based Operations in the Cyber Domain Recommendations for Model-Driven Paradigms for Integrated Approaches to Cyber Defense MILLENNIAL WARFARE IGNORING A REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS: THE NEED TO CREATE A SEPARATE BRANCH OF THE ARMED FORCES FOR CYBER WARFARE SPECIAL OPERATIONS AND CYBER WARFARE LESSONS FROM THE FRONT: A CASE STUDY OF RUSSIAN CYBER WARFARE ADAPTING UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE DOCTRINE TO CYBERSPACE OPERATIONS: AN EXAMINATION OF HACKTIVIST BASED INSURGENCIES Addressing Human Factors Gaps in Cyber Defense Airpower History and the Cyber Force of the Future How Organization for the Cyber Domain Outpaced Strategic Thinking and Forgot the Lessons of the Past THE COMMAND OF THE TREND: SOCIAL MEDIA AS A WEAPON IN THE INFORMATION AGE SPYING FOR THE RIGHT REASONS: CONTESTED NORMS IN CYBERSPACE AIR FORCE CYBERWORX REPORT: REMODELING AIR FORCE CYBER COMMAND & CONTROL THE CYBER WAR: MAINTAINING AND CONTROLLING THE “KEY CYBER TERRAIN” OF THE CYBERSPACE DOMAIN WHEN NORMS FAIL: NORTH KOREA AND CYBER AS AN ELEMENT OF STATECRAFT AN ANTIFRAGILE APPROACH TO PREPARING FOR CYBER CONFLICT AIR FORCE CYBER MISSION ASSURANCE SOURCES OF MISSION UNCERTAINTY Concurrency Attacks and Defenses Cyber Workforce Retention

Cyber Warfare

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Cyber Warfare by James A. Green Book Summary:

This book is a multi-disciplinary analysis of cyber warfare, featuring contributions by leading experts from a mixture of academic and professional backgrounds. Cyber warfare, meaning interstate cyber aggression, is an increasingly important emerging phenomenon in international relations, with state-orchestrated (or apparently state-orchestrated) computer network attacks occurring in Estonia (2007), Georgia (2008) and Iran (2010). This method of waging warfare – given its potential to, for example, make planes fall from the sky or cause nuclear power plants to melt down – has the capacity to be as devastating as any conventional means of conducting armed conflict. Every state in the world now has a cyber-defence programme and over 120 states also have a cyber-attack programme. While the amount of literature on cyber warfare is growing within disciplines, our understanding of the subject has been limited by a lack of cross-disciplinary engagement. In response, this book, drawn from the fields of computer science, military strategy, international law, political science and military ethics, provides a critical overview of cyber warfare for those approaching the topic from whatever angle. Chapters consider the emergence of the phenomena of cyber warfare in international affairs; what cyber-attacks are from a technological standpoint; the extent to which cyber-attacks can be attributed to state actors; the strategic value and danger posed by cyber conflict; the legal regulation of cyber-attacks, both as international uses of force and as part of an on-going armed conflict, and the ethical implications of cyber warfare. This book will be of great interest to students of cyber warfare, cyber security, military ethics, international law, security studies and IR in general.

Managing Cyber Attacks in International Law, Business, and Relations

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Managing Cyber Attacks in International Law, Business, and Relations by Scott J. Shackelford Book Summary:

This book presents a novel framework to reconceptualize Internet governance and better manage cyber attacks. Specifically, it makes an original contribution by examining the potential of polycentric regulation to increase accountability through bottom-up action. It also provides a synthesis of the current state of cybersecurity research, bringing features of the cloak and dagger world of cyber attacks to light and comparing and contrasting the cyber threat to all relevant stakeholders. Throughout the book, cybersecurity is treated holistically, covering outstanding issues in law, science, economics, and politics. This interdisciplinary approach is an exemplar of how strategies from different disciplines as well as the private and public sectors may cross-pollinate to enhance cybersecurity. Case studies and examples illustrate what is at stake and identify best practices. The book discusses technical issues of Internet governance and cybersecurity while presenting the material in an informal, straightforward manner. The book is designed to inform readers about the interplay of Internet governance and cybersecurity and the potential of polycentric regulation to help foster cyber peace.

Cyber Warfare

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Cyber Warfare by Jason Andress,Steve Winterfeld Book Summary:

Cyber Warfare Techniques, Tactics and Tools for Security Practitioners provides a comprehensive look at how and why digital warfare is waged. This book explores the participants, battlefields, and the tools and techniques used during today's digital conflicts. The concepts discussed will give students of information security a better idea of how cyber conflicts are carried out now, how they will change in the future, and how to detect and defend against espionage, hacktivism, insider threats and non-state actors such as organized criminals and terrorists. Every one of our systems is under attack from multiple vectors - our defenses must be ready all the time and our alert systems must detect the threats every time. This book provides concrete examples and real-world guidance on how to identify and defend a network against malicious attacks. It considers relevant technical and factual information from an insider's point of view, as well as the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber war and how computer criminal law may change as a result. Starting with a definition of cyber warfare, the book’s 15 chapters discuss the following topics: the cyberspace battlefield; cyber doctrine; cyber warriors; logical, physical, and psychological weapons; computer network exploitation; computer network attack and defense; non-state actors in computer network operations; legal system impacts; ethics in cyber warfare; cyberspace challenges; and the future of cyber war. This book is a valuable resource to those involved in cyber warfare activities, including policymakers, penetration testers, security professionals, network and systems administrators, and college instructors. The information provided on cyber tactics and attacks can also be used to assist in developing improved and more efficient procedures and technical defenses. Managers will find the text useful in improving the overall risk management strategies for their organizations. Provides concrete examples and real-world guidance on how to identify and defend your network against malicious attacks Dives deeply into relevant technical and factual information from an insider's point of view Details the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber war and how computer criminal law may change as a result

Inside Cyber Warfare

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Inside Cyber Warfare by Jeffrey Carr Book Summary:

What people are saying about Inside Cyber Warfare "The necessary handbook for the 21st century." --Lewis Shepherd, Chief Tech Officer and Senior Fellow, Microsoft Institute for Advanced Technology in Governments "A must-read for policy makers and leaders who need to understand the big-picture landscape of cyber war." --Jim Stogdill, CTO, Mission Services Accenture You may have heard about "cyber warfare" in the news, but do you really know what it is? This book provides fascinating and disturbing details on how nations, groups, and individuals throughout the world are using the Internet as an attack platform to gain military, political, and economic advantages over their adversaries. You'll learn how sophisticated hackers working on behalf of states or organized crime patiently play a high-stakes game that could target anyone, regardless of affiliation or nationality. Inside Cyber Warfare goes beyond the headlines of attention-grabbing DDoS attacks and takes a deep look inside multiple cyber-conflicts that occurred from 2002 through summer 2009. Learn how cyber attacks are waged in open conflicts, including recent hostilities between Russia and Georgia, and Israel and Palestine Discover why Twitter, Facebook, LiveJournal, Vkontakte, and other sites on the social web are mined by the intelligence services of many nations Read about China's commitment to penetrate the networks of its technologically superior adversaries as a matter of national survival Find out why many attacks originate from servers in the United States, and who's responsible Learn how hackers are "weaponizing" malware to attack vulnerabilities at the application level

Cyberspace and International Relations

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Cyberspace and International Relations by Jan-Frederik Kremer,Benedikt Müller Book Summary:

Cyberspace is everywhere in today’s world and has significant implications not only for global economic activity, but also for international politics and transnational social relations. This compilation addresses for the first time the “cyberization” of international relations - the growing dependence of actors in IR on the infrastructure and instruments of the internet, and the penetration of cyberspace into all fields of their activities. The volume approaches this topical issue in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary fashion, bringing together scholars from disciplines such as IR, security studies, ICT studies and philosophy as well as experts from everyday cyber-practice. In the first part, concepts and theories are presented to shed light on the relationship between cyberspace and international relations, discussing implications for the discipline and presenting fresh and innovative theoretical approaches. Contributions in the second part focus on specific empirical fields of activity (security, economy, diplomacy, cultural activity, transnational communication, critical infrastructure, cyber espionage, social media, and more) and address emerging challenges and prospects for international politics and relations.

Ethics and Cyber Warfare

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Ethics and Cyber Warfare by George Lucas Book Summary:

From North Korea's recent attacks on Sony to perpetual news reports of successful hackings and criminal theft, cyber conflict has emerged as a major topic of public concern. Yet even as attacks on military, civilian, and commercial targets have escalated, there is not yet a clear set of ethical guidelines that apply to cyber warfare. Indeed, like terrorism, cyber warfare is commonly believed to be a war without rules. Given the prevalence cyber warfare, developing a practical moral code for this new form of conflict is more important than ever. In Ethics and Cyber Warfare, internationally-respected ethicist George Lucas delves into the confounding realm of cyber conflict. Comparing "state-sponsored hacktivism" to the transformative impact of "irregular warfare" in conventional armed conflict, Lucas offers a critique of legal approaches to governance, and outlines a new approach to ethics and "just war" reasoning. Lucas draws upon the political philosophies of Alasdair MacIntyre, John Rawls, and Jurgen Habermas to provide a framework for understanding these newly-emerging standards for cyber conflict, and ultimately presents a professional code of ethics for a new generation of "cyber warriors." Lucas concludes with a discussion of whether preemptive self-defense efforts - such as the massive government surveillance programs revealed by Edward Snowden - can ever be justified, addressing controversial topics such as privacy, anonymity, and public trust. Well-reasoned and timely, Ethics and Cyber Warfare is a must-read for anyone with an interest in philosophy, ethics, or cybercrime. "

Current and Emerging Trends in Cyber Operations

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Current and Emerging Trends in Cyber Operations by Frederic Lemieux Book Summary:

This book explores current and emerging trends in policy, strategy, and practice related to cyber operations conducted by states and non-state actors. The book examines in depth the nature and dynamics of conflicts in the cyberspace, the geopolitics of cyber conflicts, defence strategy and practice, cyber intelligence and information security.

Darkweb Cyber Threat Intelligence Mining

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Darkweb Cyber Threat Intelligence Mining by John Robertson,Ahmad Diab,Ericsson Marin,Vivin Paliath,Eric Nunes,Jana Shakarian,Paulo Shakarian Book Summary:

The important and rapidly emerging new field known as 'cyber threat intelligence' explores the paradigm that defenders of computer networks gain a better understanding of their adversaries by understanding what assets they have available for an attack. In this book, a team of experts examines a new type of cyber threat intelligence from the heart of the malicious hacking underworld - the dark web. These highly secure sites have allowed anonymous communities of malicious hackers to exchange ideas and techniques, and to buy/sell malware and exploits. Aimed at both cybersecurity practitioners and researchers, this book represents a first step toward a better understanding of malicious hacking communities on the dark web and what to do about them. The authors examine real-world darkweb data through a combination of human and automated techniques to gain insight into these communities, describing both methodology and results.

Cybersecurity in Israel

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Cybersecurity in Israel by Lior Tabansky,Isaac Ben Israel Book Summary:

This SpringerBrief gives the reader a detailed account of how cybersecurity in Israel has evolved over the past two decades. The formation of the regions cybersecurity strategy is explored and an in-depth analysis of key developments in cybersecurity policy is provided. The authors examine cybersecurity from an integrative national perspective and see it as a set of policies and actions with two interconnected goals: to mitigate security risks and increase resilience and leverage opportunities enabled by cyber-space. Chapters include an insight into the planning and implementation of the National Security Concept strategy which facilitated the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) agreement in 2002, (one of the first of its kind), the foundation of the Israeli Cyber-strategy in 2011, and details of the current steps being taken to establish a National Cyber Security Authority (NCSA). Cybersecurity in Israel will be essential reading for anybody interested in cyber-security policy, including students, researchers, analysts and policy makers alike.

Cyber Mercenaries

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Cyber Mercenaries by Tim Maurer Book Summary:

Cyber Mercenaries explores how and why states use hackers as proxies to project power through cyberspace.

Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism by Janczewski, Lech,Colarik, Andrew Book Summary:

"This book reviews problems, issues, and presentations of the newest research in the field of cyberwarfare and cyberterrorism. While enormous efficiencies have been gained as a result of computers and telecommunications technologies, use of these systems and networks translates into a major concentration of information resources, createing a vulnerability to a host of attacks and exploitations"--Provided by publisher.

Ethics and Policies for Cyber Operations

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Ethics and Policies for Cyber Operations by Mariarosaria Taddeo,Ludovica Glorioso Book Summary:

This book presents 12 essays that focus on the analysis of the problems prompted by cyber operations (COs). It clarifies and discusses the ethical and regulatory problems raised by the deployment of cyber capabilities by a state’s army to inflict disruption or damage to an adversary’s targets in or through cyberspace. Written by world-leading philosophers, ethicists, policy-makers, and law and military experts, the essays cover such topics as the conceptual novelty of COs and the ethical problems that this engenders; the applicability of existing conceptual and regulatory frameworks to COs deployed in case of conflicts; the definition of deterrence strategies involving COs; and the analysis of models to foster cooperation in managing cyber crises. Each essay is an invited contribution or a revised version of a paper originally presented at the workshop on Ethics and Policies for Cyber Warfare, organized by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in collaboration with the University of Oxford. The volume endorses a multi-disciplinary approach, as such it offers a comprehensive overview of the ethical, legal, and policy problems posed by COs and of the different approaches and methods that can be used to solve them. It will appeal to a wide readership, including ethicists, philosophers, military experts, strategy planners, and law- and policy-makers.

Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks

Introduction To Cyber Warfare A Multidisciplinary Approach [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks by National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Computer Science and Telecommunications Board,Committee on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy Book Summary:

In a world of increasing dependence on information technology, the prevention of cyberattacks on a nation's important computer and communications systems and networks is a problem that looms large. Given the demonstrated limitations of passive cybersecurity defense measures, it is natural to consider the possibility that deterrence might play a useful role in preventing cyberattacks against the United States and its vital interests. At the request of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the National Research Council undertook a two-phase project aimed to foster a broad, multidisciplinary examination of strategies for deterring cyberattacks on the United States and of the possible utility of these strategies for the U.S. government. The first phase produced a letter report providing basic information needed to understand the nature of the problem and to articulate important questions that can drive research regarding ways of more effectively preventing, discouraging, and inhibiting hostile activity against important U.S. information systems and networks. The second phase of the project entailed selecting appropriate experts to write papers on questions raised in the letter report. A number of experts, identified by the committee, were commissioned to write these papers under contract with the National Academy of Sciences. Commissioned papers were discussed at a public workshop held June 10-11, 2010, in Washington, D.C., and authors revised their papers after the workshop. Although the authors were selected and the papers reviewed and discussed by the committee, the individually authored papers do not reflect consensus views of the committee, and the reader should view these papers as offering points of departure that can stimulate further work on the topics discussed. The papers presented in this volume are published essentially as received from the authors, with some proofreading corrections made as limited time allowed.