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Ecosystems Of California

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Ecosystems of California

Ecosystems of California [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: ,
Editor: Univ of California Press
ISBN-10: 0520962176
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Ecosystems of California by , Book Summary:

This long-anticipated reference and sourcebook for California’s remarkable ecological abundance provides an integrated assessment of each major ecosystem type—its distribution, structure, function, and management. A comprehensive synthesis of our knowledge about this biologically diverse state, Ecosystems of California covers the state from oceans to mountaintops using multiple lenses: past and present, flora and fauna, aquatic and terrestrial, natural and managed. Each chapter evaluates natural processes for a specific ecosystem, describes drivers of change, and discusses how that ecosystem may be altered in the future. This book also explores the drivers of California’s ecological patterns and the history of the state’s various ecosystems, outlining how the challenges of climate change and invasive species and opportunities for regulation and stewardship could potentially affect the state’s ecosystems. The text explicitly incorporates both human impacts and conservation and restoration efforts and shows how ecosystems support human well-being. Edited by two esteemed ecosystem ecologists and with overviews by leading experts on each ecosystem, this definitive work will be indispensable for natural resource management and conservation professionals as well as for undergraduate or graduate students of California’s environment and curious naturalists.

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Fire in California's Ecosystems

Fire in California's Ecosystems [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Jan W. van Wagtendonk
Editor: Univ of California Press
ISBN-10: 0520961919
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Fire in California's Ecosystems by Jan W. van Wagtendonk Book Summary:

Fire in California’s Ecosystems describes fire in detail—both as an integral natural process in the California landscape and as a growing threat to urban and suburban developments in the state. Written by many of the foremost authorities on the subject, this comprehensive volume is an ideal authoritative reference tool and the foremost synthesis of knowledge on the science, ecology, and management of fire in California. Part One introduces the basics of fire ecology, including overviews of historical fires, vegetation, climate, weather, fire as a physical and ecological process, and fire regimes, and reviews the interactions between fire and the physical, plant, and animal components of the environment. Part Two explores the history and ecology of fire in each of California's nine bioregions. Part Three examines fire management in California during Native American and post-Euro-American settlement and also current issues related to fire policy such as fuel management, watershed management, air quality, invasive plant species, at-risk species, climate change, social dynamics, and the future of fire management. This edition includes critical scientific and management updates and four new chapters on fire weather, fire regimes, climate change, and social dynamics.

Download or read Fire in California's Ecosystems book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Fire in California’s Ecosystems describes fire in detail—both as an integral natural process in the California landscape and as a growing threat to urban and suburban developments in the state. Written by many of the foremost authorities on the subject, this comprehensive volume is an ideal authoritative reference tool and the foremost synthesis of knowledge on the science, ecology, and management of fire in California. Part One introduces the basics of fire ecology, including overviews of historical fires, vegetation, climate, weather, fire as a physical and ecological process, and fire regimes, and reviews the interactions between fire and the physical, plant, and animal components of the environment. Part Two explores the history and ecology of fire in each of California's nine bioregions. Part Three examines fire management in California during Native American and post-Euro-American settlement and also current issues related to fire policy such as fuel management, watershed management, air quality, invasive plant species, at-risk species, climate change, social dynamics, and the future of fire management. This edition includes critical scientific and management updates and four new chapters on fire weather, fire regimes, climate change, and social dynamics.


Fire and Climatic Change in Temperate Ecosystems of the Western Americas

Fire and Climatic Change in Temperate Ecosystems of the Western Americas [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Thomas T. Veblen,William L. Baker,Gloria Montenegro,Thomas W. Swetnam
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-10: 038721710X
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Fire and Climatic Change in Temperate Ecosystems of the Western Americas by Thomas T. Veblen,William L. Baker,Gloria Montenegro,Thomas W. Swetnam Book Summary:

Both fire and climatic variability have monumental impacts on the dynamics of temperate ecosystems. These impacts can sometimes be extreme or devastating as seen in recent El Nino/La Nina cycles and in uncontrolled fire occurrences. This volume brings together research conducted in western North and South America, areas of a great deal of collaborative work on the influence of people and climate change on fire regimes. In order to give perspective to patterns of change over time, it emphasizes the integration of paleoecological studies with studies of modern ecosystems. Data from a range of spatial scales, from individual plants to communities and ecosystems to landscape and regional levels, are included. Contributions come from fire ecology, paleoecology, biogeography, paleoclimatology, landscape and ecosystem ecology, ecological modeling, forest management, plant community ecology and plant morphology. The book gives a synthetic overview of methods, data and simulation models for evaluating fire regime processes in forests, shrublands and woodlands and assembles case studies of fire, climate and land use histories. The unique approach of this book gives researchers the benefits of a north-south comparison as well as the integration of paleoecological histories, current ecosystem dynamics and modeling of future changes.

Download or read Fire and Climatic Change in Temperate Ecosystems of the Western Americas book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Both fire and climatic variability have monumental impacts on the dynamics of temperate ecosystems. These impacts can sometimes be extreme or devastating as seen in recent El Nino/La Nina cycles and in uncontrolled fire occurrences. This volume brings together research conducted in western North and South America, areas of a great deal of collaborative work on the influence of people and climate change on fire regimes. In order to give perspective to patterns of change over time, it emphasizes the integration of paleoecological studies with studies of modern ecosystems. Data from a range of spatial scales, from individual plants to communities and ecosystems to landscape and regional levels, are included. Contributions come from fire ecology, paleoecology, biogeography, paleoclimatology, landscape and ecosystem ecology, ecological modeling, forest management, plant community ecology and plant morphology. The book gives a synthetic overview of methods, data and simulation models for evaluating fire regime processes in forests, shrublands and woodlands and assembles case studies of fire, climate and land use histories. The unique approach of this book gives researchers the benefits of a north-south comparison as well as the integration of paleoecological histories, current ecosystem dynamics and modeling of future changes.


Ecology and Biogeography of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia

Ecology and Biogeography of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Mary T. Kalin Arroyo,Paul H. Zedler,Marlyn D. Fox
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-10: 146122490X
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Ecology and Biogeography of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia by Mary T. Kalin Arroyo,Paul H. Zedler,Marlyn D. Fox Book Summary:

Mediterranean-type ecosystems have provided ecologists with some of the most scientifically-rewarding opportunities to formulate and evaluate hypotheses about large and small-scale ecological phenomena. Comparison of mediterranean-type climate ecosystems in different parts of the world has not only permitted a strong test for ecological convergence, but also critical understanding of key ecophysiological and population processes.

Download or read Ecology and Biogeography of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Mediterranean-type ecosystems have provided ecologists with some of the most scientifically-rewarding opportunities to formulate and evaluate hypotheses about large and small-scale ecological phenomena. Comparison of mediterranean-type climate ecosystems in different parts of the world has not only permitted a strong test for ecological convergence, but also critical understanding of key ecophysiological and population processes.


Valuing Chaparral

Valuing Chaparral [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Emma C. Underwood,Hugh D. Safford,Nicole A. Molinari,Jon E. Keeley
Editor: Springer
ISBN-10: 3319683039
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Valuing Chaparral by Emma C. Underwood,Hugh D. Safford,Nicole A. Molinari,Jon E. Keeley Book Summary:

Chaparral shrubland ecosystems are an iconic feature of the California landscape, and a highly biodiverse yet highly flammable backdrop to some of the fastest growing urban areas in the United States. Chaparral-type ecosystems are a common element of all of the world’s Mediterranean-type climate regions – of which California is one – yet there is little public appreciation of the intrinsic value and the ecosystem services that these landscapes provide. Valuing Chaparral is a compendium of contributions from experts in chaparral ecology and management, with a focus on the human relationship with chaparral ecosystems. Chapters cover a wide variety of subjects, ranging from biodiversity to ecosystem services like water provision, erosion control, carbon sequestration and recreation; from the history of human interactions with chaparral to current education and conservation efforts; and from chaparral restoration and management to scenarios of the future under changing climate, land use, and human population. Valuing Chaparral will be of interest to resource managers, the research community, policy makers, and the public who live and work in the chaparral dominated landscapes of California and other Mediterranean-type climate regions.

Download or read Valuing Chaparral book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Chaparral shrubland ecosystems are an iconic feature of the California landscape, and a highly biodiverse yet highly flammable backdrop to some of the fastest growing urban areas in the United States. Chaparral-type ecosystems are a common element of all of the world’s Mediterranean-type climate regions – of which California is one – yet there is little public appreciation of the intrinsic value and the ecosystem services that these landscapes provide. Valuing Chaparral is a compendium of contributions from experts in chaparral ecology and management, with a focus on the human relationship with chaparral ecosystems. Chapters cover a wide variety of subjects, ranging from biodiversity to ecosystem services like water provision, erosion control, carbon sequestration and recreation; from the history of human interactions with chaparral to current education and conservation efforts; and from chaparral restoration and management to scenarios of the future under changing climate, land use, and human population. Valuing Chaparral will be of interest to resource managers, the research community, policy makers, and the public who live and work in the chaparral dominated landscapes of California and other Mediterranean-type climate regions.


Serpentine

Serpentine [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Susan Harrison,Nishanta Rajakaruna
Editor: Univ of California Press
ISBN-10: 0520948459
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Serpentine by Susan Harrison,Nishanta Rajakaruna Book Summary:

Serpentine soils have long fascinated biologists for the specialized floras they support and the challenges they pose to plant survival and growth. This volume focuses on what scientists have learned about major questions in earth history, evolution, ecology, conservation, and restoration from the study of serpentine areas, especially in California. Results from molecular studies offer insight into evolutionary patterns, while new ecological research examines both species and communities. Serpentine highlights research whose breadth provides context and fresh insights into the evolution and ecology of stressful environments.

Download or read Serpentine book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Serpentine soils have long fascinated biologists for the specialized floras they support and the challenges they pose to plant survival and growth. This volume focuses on what scientists have learned about major questions in earth history, evolution, ecology, conservation, and restoration from the study of serpentine areas, especially in California. Results from molecular studies offer insight into evolutionary patterns, while new ecological research examines both species and communities. Serpentine highlights research whose breadth provides context and fresh insights into the evolution and ecology of stressful environments.


Coastal Marine Ecosystems of Latin America

Coastal Marine Ecosystems of Latin America [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: U. Seeliger,B. Kjerfve
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-10: 366204482X
Size: 637 kb
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Coastal Marine Ecosystems of Latin America by U. Seeliger,B. Kjerfve Book Summary:

Coastal and marine ecosystems, some severely degraded, other still pristine, control rich resources of inshore environments and coastal seas of Latin America's Pacific and Atlantic margins. Conflicts between the needs of the region's nations and diminishing revenues and environmental quality have induced awareness of coastal ecological problems and motivated financial support for restoration and management. The volume provides a competent review on the structure, processes and function of 22 important Latin American coastal marine ecosystems. Each contribution describes the environmental settings, biotic components and structure of the system, considers trophic processes and energy flow, evaluates the modifying influence of natural and human perturbations, and suggests management needs. Although the focus of the book is on basic ecological research, the results have application for coastal managers.

Download or read Coastal Marine Ecosystems of Latin America book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Coastal and marine ecosystems, some severely degraded, other still pristine, control rich resources of inshore environments and coastal seas of Latin America's Pacific and Atlantic margins. Conflicts between the needs of the region's nations and diminishing revenues and environmental quality have induced awareness of coastal ecological problems and motivated financial support for restoration and management. The volume provides a competent review on the structure, processes and function of 22 important Latin American coastal marine ecosystems. Each contribution describes the environmental settings, biotic components and structure of the system, considers trophic processes and energy flow, evaluates the modifying influence of natural and human perturbations, and suggests management needs. Although the focus of the book is on basic ecological research, the results have application for coastal managers.


The Role of Fire in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

The Role of Fire in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Jose M. Moreno,Walter C. Oechel
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-10: 1461383951
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The Role of Fire in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems by Jose M. Moreno,Walter C. Oechel Book Summary:

Fire has been recognized as a vital agent influencing the diversity and vigor of landscapes. It is particularly important in Mediterranean ecosystems, such as those of California. This book is of interest to ecologists, policy makers, and land managers.

Download or read The Role of Fire in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Fire has been recognized as a vital agent influencing the diversity and vigor of landscapes. It is particularly important in Mediterranean ecosystems, such as those of California. This book is of interest to ecologists, policy makers, and land managers.


The Environmental Legacy of the UC Natural Reserve System

The Environmental Legacy of the UC Natural Reserve System [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Peggy L. Fiedler,Susan Gee Rumsey,Kathleen Wong
Editor: Univ of California Press
ISBN-10: 0520953649
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The Environmental Legacy of the UC Natural Reserve System by Peggy L. Fiedler,Susan Gee Rumsey,Kathleen Wong Book Summary:

The UC Natural Reserve System, established in 1965 to support field research, teaching, and public service in natural environments, has become a prototype of conservation and land stewardship looked to by natural resource managers throughout the world. From its modest beginnings of seven sites, the UC NRS has grown to encompass more than 750,000 wildland acres. This book tells the story of how a few forward-thinking UC faculty, who’d had their research plots and teaching spots destroyed by development and habitat degradation, devised a way to save representative examples of many of California’s major ecosystems. Working together with conservation-minded donors and landowners, with state and federal agencies, and with land trusts and private conservation organizations, they founded what would become the world’s largest university-administered natural reserve system—a legacy of lasting significance and utility. This lavishly illustrated volume, which includes images by famed photographers Ansel Adams and Galen Rowell, describes the natural and human histories of the system’s many reserves. Located throughout California, these wildland habitats range from coastal tide pools to inland deserts, from lush wetlands to ancient forests, and from vernal pools to oak savannas. By supporting teaching, research, and public service within such protected landscapes, the UC NRS contributes to the understanding and wise stewardship of the Earth.

Download or read The Environmental Legacy of the UC Natural Reserve System book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). The UC Natural Reserve System, established in 1965 to support field research, teaching, and public service in natural environments, has become a prototype of conservation and land stewardship looked to by natural resource managers throughout the world. From its modest beginnings of seven sites, the UC NRS has grown to encompass more than 750,000 wildland acres. This book tells the story of how a few forward-thinking UC faculty, who’d had their research plots and teaching spots destroyed by development and habitat degradation, devised a way to save representative examples of many of California’s major ecosystems. Working together with conservation-minded donors and landowners, with state and federal agencies, and with land trusts and private conservation organizations, they founded what would become the world’s largest university-administered natural reserve system—a legacy of lasting significance and utility. This lavishly illustrated volume, which includes images by famed photographers Ansel Adams and Galen Rowell, describes the natural and human histories of the system’s many reserves. Located throughout California, these wildland habitats range from coastal tide pools to inland deserts, from lush wetlands to ancient forests, and from vernal pools to oak savannas. By supporting teaching, research, and public service within such protected landscapes, the UC NRS contributes to the understanding and wise stewardship of the Earth.


Exotic Brome-Grasses in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems of the Western US

Exotic Brome-Grasses in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems of the Western US [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Matthew J. Germino,Jeanne C. Chambers,Cynthia S. Brown
Editor: Springer
ISBN-10: 3319249304
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Exotic Brome-Grasses in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems of the Western US by Matthew J. Germino,Jeanne C. Chambers,Cynthia S. Brown Book Summary:

Invasions by exotic grasses, particularly annuals, rank among the most extensive and intensive ways that humans are contributing to the transformation of the earth’s surface. The problem is particularly notable with a suite of exotic grasses in the Bromus genus in the arid and semiarid regions that dominate the western United States, which extend from the dry basins near the Sierra and Cascade Ranges across the Intermountain Region and Rockies to about 105° longitude. This genus includes approximately 150 species that have a wide range of invasive and non-invasive tendencies in their home ranges and in North America. Bromus species that became invasive upon introduction to North America in the late 1800’s, such as Bromus tectorum and B. rubens, have since became the dominant cover on millions of hectares. Here, millenia of ecosystem development led to landscapes that would otherwise be dominated by perennial shrubs, herbs, and biotic soil crusts that were able to persist in spite of variable and scarce precipitation. This native ecosystem resilience is increasingly coveted by land owners and managers as more hectares lose their resistance to Bromus grasses and similar exotics and as climate, land use, and disturbance-regime changes are also superimposed. Managers are increasingly challenged to glean basic services from these ecosystems as they become invaded. Exotic annual grasses reduce wildlife and livestock carrying capacity and increase the frequency and extent of wildfi res and associated soil erosion. This book uses a unique ecoregional and multidisciplinary approach to evaluate the invasiveness, impacts, and management of the large Bromus genus. Students, researchers, and practitioners interested in Bromus specifically and invasive exotics in general will benefit from the depth of knowledge summarized in the book.

Download or read Exotic Brome-Grasses in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems of the Western US book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Invasions by exotic grasses, particularly annuals, rank among the most extensive and intensive ways that humans are contributing to the transformation of the earth’s surface. The problem is particularly notable with a suite of exotic grasses in the Bromus genus in the arid and semiarid regions that dominate the western United States, which extend from the dry basins near the Sierra and Cascade Ranges across the Intermountain Region and Rockies to about 105° longitude. This genus includes approximately 150 species that have a wide range of invasive and non-invasive tendencies in their home ranges and in North America. Bromus species that became invasive upon introduction to North America in the late 1800’s, such as Bromus tectorum and B. rubens, have since became the dominant cover on millions of hectares. Here, millenia of ecosystem development led to landscapes that would otherwise be dominated by perennial shrubs, herbs, and biotic soil crusts that were able to persist in spite of variable and scarce precipitation. This native ecosystem resilience is increasingly coveted by land owners and managers as more hectares lose their resistance to Bromus grasses and similar exotics and as climate, land use, and disturbance-regime changes are also superimposed. Managers are increasingly challenged to glean basic services from these ecosystems as they become invaded. Exotic annual grasses reduce wildlife and livestock carrying capacity and increase the frequency and extent of wildfi res and associated soil erosion. This book uses a unique ecoregional and multidisciplinary approach to evaluate the invasiveness, impacts, and management of the large Bromus genus. Students, researchers, and practitioners interested in Bromus specifically and invasive exotics in general will benefit from the depth of knowledge summarized in the book.


Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World

Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Josep G. Canadell,Diane E. Pataki,Louis F. Pitelka
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-10: 3540327304
Size: 452 kb
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Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World by Josep G. Canadell,Diane E. Pataki,Louis F. Pitelka Book Summary:

This book examines the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems. Emphasis is placed on impacts of atmospheric, climate and land use change, and the book discusses the future challenges and the scientific frameworks to address them. Finally, the book explores fundamental new research developments and the need for stronger integration of natural and human dimensions in addressing the challenge of global change.

Download or read Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). This book examines the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems. Emphasis is placed on impacts of atmospheric, climate and land use change, and the book discusses the future challenges and the scientific frameworks to address them. Finally, the book explores fundamental new research developments and the need for stronger integration of natural and human dimensions in addressing the challenge of global change.


Malformed Frogs

Malformed Frogs [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Michael Lannoo
Editor: Univ of California Press
ISBN-10: 0520942531
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Malformed Frogs by Michael Lannoo Book Summary:

The widespread appearance of frogs with deformed bodies has generated much press coverage over the past decade. Frogs with extra limbs or digits, missing limbs or digits, or misaligned appendages raise an alarming question: "Are deformed humans next?" Taking a fresh look at this disturbing environmental problem, this reference provides a balanced overview of the science behind the malformed frog phenomenon. Bringing together data from ecology, parasitology, and other disciplines, Michael Lannoo considers the possible causes of these deformities, tells which frogs have been affected, and addresses questions about what these malformations might mean to human populations. Featuring high-quality radiographic images, Malformed Frogs suggests that our focus should be on finding practical solutions, a key component of which will be controlling chemical, nutrient, and pesticide runoff into wetlands.

Download or read Malformed Frogs book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). The widespread appearance of frogs with deformed bodies has generated much press coverage over the past decade. Frogs with extra limbs or digits, missing limbs or digits, or misaligned appendages raise an alarming question: "Are deformed humans next?" Taking a fresh look at this disturbing environmental problem, this reference provides a balanced overview of the science behind the malformed frog phenomenon. Bringing together data from ecology, parasitology, and other disciplines, Michael Lannoo considers the possible causes of these deformities, tells which frogs have been affected, and addresses questions about what these malformations might mean to human populations. Featuring high-quality radiographic images, Malformed Frogs suggests that our focus should be on finding practical solutions, a key component of which will be controlling chemical, nutrient, and pesticide runoff into wetlands.


Mediterranean Type Ecosystems

Mediterranean Type Ecosystems [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Francesco di Castri,Harold A. Mooney
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-10: 3642655203
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Mediterranean Type Ecosystems by Francesco di Castri,Harold A. Mooney Book Summary:

No other disjunct pieces of land present such striking similarities as the widely sepa 1 rated regions with a mediterranean type of climate, that is, the territories fringing the Mediterranean Sea, California, Central Chile and the southernmost strips of South Mrica and Australia. Similarities are not confined to climatic trends, but are also reflected in the physiognomy ofthe vegetation, in land use patterns and frequently in the general appearance of the landscape. The very close similarities in agricultural practices and sometimes also in rural settlements are dependent on the climatic and edaphic analogies, as well as on a certain commonality in qdtural history. This is certainly true for the Mediterranean Sea basin which in many ways represents a sort of ecological-cultural unit; this is also valid for CaUfornia and Chile, which were both settled by Spaniards and which showed periods of vigorous commercial and cultural interchanges as during the California gold rush. One other general feature is the massive interchange of cultivated and weed species of plants that has occurred between the five areas of the world that have a mediterranean-type climate, with the Mediterranean basin region itself as a major source. In spite of their limited territorial extension, probably no other parts of the world have played a more fundamental role in the history of mankind. Phoenician, Etruscan, Hellenic, Jewish, Roman, Christian andArab civilizations, among others,haveshapedmanyofman's present attitudes, including his position and perception vis-a-vis nature.

Download or read Mediterranean Type Ecosystems book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). No other disjunct pieces of land present such striking similarities as the widely sepa 1 rated regions with a mediterranean type of climate, that is, the territories fringing the Mediterranean Sea, California, Central Chile and the southernmost strips of South Mrica and Australia. Similarities are not confined to climatic trends, but are also reflected in the physiognomy ofthe vegetation, in land use patterns and frequently in the general appearance of the landscape. The very close similarities in agricultural practices and sometimes also in rural settlements are dependent on the climatic and edaphic analogies, as well as on a certain commonality in qdtural history. This is certainly true for the Mediterranean Sea basin which in many ways represents a sort of ecological-cultural unit; this is also valid for CaUfornia and Chile, which were both settled by Spaniards and which showed periods of vigorous commercial and cultural interchanges as during the California gold rush. One other general feature is the massive interchange of cultivated and weed species of plants that has occurred between the five areas of the world that have a mediterranean-type climate, with the Mediterranean basin region itself as a major source. In spite of their limited territorial extension, probably no other parts of the world have played a more fundamental role in the history of mankind. Phoenician, Etruscan, Hellenic, Jewish, Roman, Christian andArab civilizations, among others,haveshapedmanyofman's present attitudes, including his position and perception vis-a-vis nature.


Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: F.J. Kruger,D.T. Mitchell,J.U.M. Jarvis
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-10: 3642689353
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Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems by F.J. Kruger,D.T. Mitchell,J.U.M. Jarvis Book Summary:

The theory of ecological convergence underlies the biogeographers' maps of world biome-types. It also determines the degree to which ecological principles, derived from research on particular populations, communities or ecosystems, are generally valid, and hence also to what extent resource management principles are general. To quote Di Castri and Mooney (1973): "In effect, in order to assess the transfer of technology, it is essential to know to what extent information acquired from studying one particular ecosystem is applicable to another ecosystem of the same type but situated in a different location. " The five relatively small, isolated, mediterranean-climate zones of the earth, each with its distinct fauna and flora, have provided the ideal testing grounds for this theory. A heritage of precisely focused ecosystems research has resulted, beginning with the international comparative analyses conducted by Specht (l969a, b) but with antecedents in earlier studies in South Australia (Specht and Rayson 1957, Specht 1973). Cody and Mooney (1978) reviewed the information available at the time for the four zones excepting Australia and concluded that the arrays of strategy-types to be found among the different biotas were so similar that they could be explained only in terms of the convergence hypothesis; nevertheless, evident differences in community organization and dynamics, especially phenol ogy, required closer study of resource availability and resource-use patterns to better explain relations between form and function overall, and to assess the degree of convergence at higher levels of organization than the population.

Download or read Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). The theory of ecological convergence underlies the biogeographers' maps of world biome-types. It also determines the degree to which ecological principles, derived from research on particular populations, communities or ecosystems, are generally valid, and hence also to what extent resource management principles are general. To quote Di Castri and Mooney (1973): "In effect, in order to assess the transfer of technology, it is essential to know to what extent information acquired from studying one particular ecosystem is applicable to another ecosystem of the same type but situated in a different location. " The five relatively small, isolated, mediterranean-climate zones of the earth, each with its distinct fauna and flora, have provided the ideal testing grounds for this theory. A heritage of precisely focused ecosystems research has resulted, beginning with the international comparative analyses conducted by Specht (l969a, b) but with antecedents in earlier studies in South Australia (Specht and Rayson 1957, Specht 1973). Cody and Mooney (1978) reviewed the information available at the time for the four zones excepting Australia and concluded that the arrays of strategy-types to be found among the different biotas were so similar that they could be explained only in terms of the convergence hypothesis; nevertheless, evident differences in community organization and dynamics, especially phenol ogy, required closer study of resource availability and resource-use patterns to better explain relations between form and function overall, and to assess the degree of convergence at higher levels of organization than the population.


Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground

Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: L.R. Walker
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN-10: 9780080550848
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Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground by L.R. Walker Book Summary:

As the human population inexorably grows, its cumulative impact on the Earth's resources is hard to ignore. The ability of the Earth to support more humans is dependent on the ability of humans to manage natural resources wisely. Because disturbance alters resource levels, effective management requires understanding of the ecology of disturbance. This book is the first to take a global approach to the description of both natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes that physically impact the ground. Natural disturbances such as erosion, volcanoes, wind, herbivory, flooding and drought plus anthropogenic disturbances such as foresty, grazing, mining, urbanization and military actions are considered. Both disturbance impacts and the biotic recovery are addressed as well as the interactions of different types of disturbance. Other chapters cover processes that are important to the understanding of disturbance of all types including soil processes, nutrient cycles, primary productivity, succession, animal behaviour and competition. Humans react to disturbances by avoiding, exacerbating, or restoring them or by passing environmental legislation. All of these issues are covered in this book. Managers need better predictive models and robust data-collections that help determine both site-specfic and generalized responses to disturbance. Multiple disturbances have a complex effect on both physical and biotic processes as they interact. This book provides a wealth of detail about the process of disturbance and recovery as well as a synthesis of the current state of knowledge about disturbance theory, with extensive documentation.

Download or read Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). As the human population inexorably grows, its cumulative impact on the Earth's resources is hard to ignore. The ability of the Earth to support more humans is dependent on the ability of humans to manage natural resources wisely. Because disturbance alters resource levels, effective management requires understanding of the ecology of disturbance. This book is the first to take a global approach to the description of both natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes that physically impact the ground. Natural disturbances such as erosion, volcanoes, wind, herbivory, flooding and drought plus anthropogenic disturbances such as foresty, grazing, mining, urbanization and military actions are considered. Both disturbance impacts and the biotic recovery are addressed as well as the interactions of different types of disturbance. Other chapters cover processes that are important to the understanding of disturbance of all types including soil processes, nutrient cycles, primary productivity, succession, animal behaviour and competition. Humans react to disturbances by avoiding, exacerbating, or restoring them or by passing environmental legislation. All of these issues are covered in this book. Managers need better predictive models and robust data-collections that help determine both site-specfic and generalized responses to disturbance. Multiple disturbances have a complex effect on both physical and biotic processes as they interact. This book provides a wealth of detail about the process of disturbance and recovery as well as a synthesis of the current state of knowledge about disturbance theory, with extensive documentation.


Ecology and Biogeography of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia

Ecology and Biogeography of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Mary T. Kalin Arroyo,Paul H. Zedler,Marlyn D. Fox
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-10: 146122490X
Size: 1686 kb
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Ecology and Biogeography of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia by Mary T. Kalin Arroyo,Paul H. Zedler,Marlyn D. Fox Book Summary:

Mediterranean-type ecosystems have provided ecologists with some of the most scientifically-rewarding opportunities to formulate and evaluate hypotheses about large and small-scale ecological phenomena. Comparison of mediterranean-type climate ecosystems in different parts of the world has not only permitted a strong test for ecological convergence, but also critical understanding of key ecophysiological and population processes.

Download or read Ecology and Biogeography of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Mediterranean-type ecosystems have provided ecologists with some of the most scientifically-rewarding opportunities to formulate and evaluate hypotheses about large and small-scale ecological phenomena. Comparison of mediterranean-type climate ecosystems in different parts of the world has not only permitted a strong test for ecological convergence, but also critical understanding of key ecophysiological and population processes.


Lakes and Watersheds in the Sierra Nevada of California

Lakes and Watersheds in the Sierra Nevada of California [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: John M. Melack
Editor: Univ of California Press
ISBN-10: 0520967348
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Lakes and Watersheds in the Sierra Nevada of California by John M. Melack Book Summary:

The Sierra Nevada, California’s iconic mountain range, harbors thousands of remote high-elevations lakes from which water flows to sustain agriculture and cities. As climate and air quality in the region change, so do the watershed processes upon which these lakes depend. In order to understand the future of California’s ecology and natural resources, we need an integrated account of the environmental processes that underlie these aquatic systems. Synthesizing over three decades of research on the lakes and watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, this book develops an integrated account of the hydrological and biogeochemical systems that sustain them. With a focus on Emerald Lake in Sequoia National Park, the book marshals long-term limnological and ecological data to provide a detailed and synthetic account, while also highlighting the vulnerability of Sierra lakes to changes in climate and atmospheric deposition. In so doing, it lays the scientific foundations for predicting and understanding how the lakes and watersheds will respond.

Download or read Lakes and Watersheds in the Sierra Nevada of California book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). The Sierra Nevada, California’s iconic mountain range, harbors thousands of remote high-elevations lakes from which water flows to sustain agriculture and cities. As climate and air quality in the region change, so do the watershed processes upon which these lakes depend. In order to understand the future of California’s ecology and natural resources, we need an integrated account of the environmental processes that underlie these aquatic systems. Synthesizing over three decades of research on the lakes and watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, this book develops an integrated account of the hydrological and biogeochemical systems that sustain them. With a focus on Emerald Lake in Sequoia National Park, the book marshals long-term limnological and ecological data to provide a detailed and synthetic account, while also highlighting the vulnerability of Sierra lakes to changes in climate and atmospheric deposition. In so doing, it lays the scientific foundations for predicting and understanding how the lakes and watersheds will respond.


The Role of Fire in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

The Role of Fire in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Jose M. Moreno,Walter C. Oechel
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-10: 1461383951
Size: 1847 kb
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The Role of Fire in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems by Jose M. Moreno,Walter C. Oechel Book Summary:

Fire has been recognized as a vital agent influencing the diversity and vigor of landscapes. It is particularly important in Mediterranean ecosystems, such as those of California. This book is of interest to ecologists, policy makers, and land managers.

Download or read The Role of Fire in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Fire has been recognized as a vital agent influencing the diversity and vigor of landscapes. It is particularly important in Mediterranean ecosystems, such as those of California. This book is of interest to ecologists, policy makers, and land managers.


Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: George W. Davis,David M. Richardson
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-10: 3642788815
Size: 1136 kb
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Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems by George W. Davis,David M. Richardson Book Summary:

Human activities are causing species extinctions at a rate and magnitude rivaling those of past geologic extinction events. Exploring mediterranean-type ecosystems - the Mediterranean Basin, California, Chile, Australia, and South Africa - this volume addresses the question whether biological diversity plays a significant role in the functioning of natural ecosystems, and to what extent that diversity can be reduced without causing system malfunction. Comparative studies in ecosystems that are similar in certain respects, but differ in others, offer considerable scope for gaining new insights into the links between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

Download or read Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Human activities are causing species extinctions at a rate and magnitude rivaling those of past geologic extinction events. Exploring mediterranean-type ecosystems - the Mediterranean Basin, California, Chile, Australia, and South Africa - this volume addresses the question whether biological diversity plays a significant role in the functioning of natural ecosystems, and to what extent that diversity can be reduced without causing system malfunction. Comparative studies in ecosystems that are similar in certain respects, but differ in others, offer considerable scope for gaining new insights into the links between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.


Valuing Chaparral

Valuing Chaparral [Pdf/ePub] eBook Author: Emma C. Underwood,Hugh D. Safford,Nicole A. Molinari,Jon E. Keeley
Editor: Springer
ISBN-10: 3319683039
Size: 569 kb
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Valuing Chaparral by Emma C. Underwood,Hugh D. Safford,Nicole A. Molinari,Jon E. Keeley Book Summary:

Chaparral shrubland ecosystems are an iconic feature of the California landscape, and a highly biodiverse yet highly flammable backdrop to some of the fastest growing urban areas in the United States. Chaparral-type ecosystems are a common element of all of the world’s Mediterranean-type climate regions – of which California is one – yet there is little public appreciation of the intrinsic value and the ecosystem services that these landscapes provide. Valuing Chaparral is a compendium of contributions from experts in chaparral ecology and management, with a focus on the human relationship with chaparral ecosystems. Chapters cover a wide variety of subjects, ranging from biodiversity to ecosystem services like water provision, erosion control, carbon sequestration and recreation; from the history of human interactions with chaparral to current education and conservation efforts; and from chaparral restoration and management to scenarios of the future under changing climate, land use, and human population. Valuing Chaparral will be of interest to resource managers, the research community, policy makers, and the public who live and work in the chaparral dominated landscapes of California and other Mediterranean-type climate regions.

Download or read Valuing Chaparral book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc). Chaparral shrubland ecosystems are an iconic feature of the California landscape, and a highly biodiverse yet highly flammable backdrop to some of the fastest growing urban areas in the United States. Chaparral-type ecosystems are a common element of all of the world’s Mediterranean-type climate regions – of which California is one – yet there is little public appreciation of the intrinsic value and the ecosystem services that these landscapes provide. Valuing Chaparral is a compendium of contributions from experts in chaparral ecology and management, with a focus on the human relationship with chaparral ecosystems. Chapters cover a wide variety of subjects, ranging from biodiversity to ecosystem services like water provision, erosion control, carbon sequestration and recreation; from the history of human interactions with chaparral to current education and conservation efforts; and from chaparral restoration and management to scenarios of the future under changing climate, land use, and human population. Valuing Chaparral will be of interest to resource managers, the research community, policy makers, and the public who live and work in the chaparral dominated landscapes of California and other Mediterranean-type climate regions.