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Doing Things For Reasons

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Doing Things for Reasons

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Doing Things for Reasons by Rudiger Bittner Book Summary:

What exactly are the reasons we do things, and how are they related to the resulting actions? Bittner explores this question and proposes an answer: a reason is a response to that state of affairs. Elegantly written, this work is a substantial contribution to the fields of rationality, ethics, and action theory.

The Norm of Belief

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The Norm of Belief by John Gibbons Book Summary:

John Gibbons presents an original account of epistemic normativity. Belief seems to come with a built-in set of standards or norms. One task is to say where these standards come from. But the more basic task is to say what those standards are. In some sense, beliefs are supposed to be true and ought to be reasonable. Which, if any of these is the fundamental norm of belief? The Norm of Belief argues against the teleological or instrumentalist conceptionof rationality that sees being reasonable as a means to our more objective aims, either knowledge or truth. It tries to explain both the norms of knowledge and of truth in terms of the fundamental norm, the one that tells you to be reasonable.

The Intellectual Powers

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The Intellectual Powers by N.A Book Summary:

The Intellectual Powers is a philosophical investigationinto the cognitive and cogitative powers of mankind. It develops aconnective analysis of our powers of consciousness, intentionality,mastery of language, knowledge, belief, certainty, sensation,perception, memory, thought, and imagination, by one ofBritain’s leading philosophers. It is an essential guide andhandbook for philosophers, psychologists, and cognitiveneuroscientists. The culmination of 45 years of reflection on the philosophy ofmind, epistemology, and the nature of the human person No other book in epistemology or philosophy of psychologyprovides such extensive overviews of consciousness,self-consciousness, intentionality, mastery of a language,knowledge, belief, memory, sensation and perception, thought andimagination Illustrated with tables, tree-diagrams, and charts to provideoverviews of the conceptual relationships disclosed byanalysis Written by one of Britain’s best philosophical minds A sequel to Hacker’s Human Nature: The CategorialFramework An essential guide and handbook for all who are working inphilosophy of mind, epistemology, psychology, cognitive science,and cognitive neuroscience

Oxford Studies in Agency and Responsibility

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Oxford Studies in Agency and Responsibility by David Shoemaker Book Summary:

Oxford Studies in Agency and Responsibility is a forum for outstanding new work in an area of vigorous and broad-ranging debate in philosophy and beyond. What is involved in human action? Can philosophy and science illuminate debate about free will? How should we answer questions about responsibility for action?

Kant on Practical Justification

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Kant on Practical Justification by Mark Timmons,Sorin Baiasu Book Summary:

This volume of new essays provides a comprehensive and structured examination of Kant's justification of norms, a crucial but neglected theme in Kantian practical philosophy. The essays engage with the view that a successful account of justification of normative claims has to be non-metaphysical and go on to pursue further implications in ethics, legal and political philosophy, and philosophy of religion.

The Free Development of Each

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The Free Development of Each by Allen W. Wood Book Summary:

The Free Development of Each collects twelve essays on the history of German philosophy by Allen W. Wood, one of the leading scholars in the field. They explore moral philosophy, politics, society, and history in the works of Kant, Herder, Fichte, Hegel, and Marx, and share the basic theme of freedom, as it appears in morality and in politics. All of the essays have been re-edited and revised for this collection, and five are previously unpublished. They are accompanied by an Introduction which sets out the central, philosophical viewpoint of the volume, and a comprehensive bibliography.

The Disordered Mind

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The Disordered Mind by George Graham Book Summary:

The Disordered Mind: An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind and Mental Illness, second edition examines and explains, from a philosophical standpoint, what mental disorder is: its reality, causes, consequences, and more. It is also an outstanding introduction to philosophy of mind from the perspective of mental disorder. Revised and updated throughout, this second edition includes new discussions of grief and psychopathy, the problems of the psychophysical basis of disorder, the nature of selfhood, and clarification of the relation between rationality and mental disorder. Each chapter explores a central question or problem about mental disorder, including: what is mental disorder and can it be distinguished from neurological disorder? what roles should reference to psychological, cultural, and social factors play in the medical/scientific understanding of mental disorder? what makes mental disorders undesirable? Are they diseases? mental disorder and the mind–body problem is mental disorder a breakdown of rationality? What is a rational mind? addiction, responsibility and compulsion ethical dilemmas posed by mental disorder, including questions of dignity and self-respect. Each topic is clearly explained and placed in a clinical and philosophical context. Mental disorders discussed include clinical depression, dissociative identity disorder, anxiety, religious delusions, and paranoia. Several non-mental neurological disorders that possess psychological symptoms are also examined, including Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, and Tourette’s syndrome. Containing chapter summaries and suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter, The Disordered Mind, second edition is a superb introduction to the philosophy of mental disorder for students of philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, and related mental health professions.

Society and Personality

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Society and Personality by Tamotsu Shibutani Book Summary:

Society and Personality is the most reliable single guide available to formative theorists of social psychology, and no less, to the social psychologists now in formation. Shibutani declares that his approches are tentative and the studies cited are illustrative. This extraordinary volume provides that familiarity in such scope and depth that it traverses time span since its first appearance with east.

Revise for Religious Studies GCSE

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Revise for Religious Studies GCSE by Sarah K. Tyler,Gordon Reid Book Summary:

This Revision Guide is tailored to exactly match the Edexcel Religion and Life specification, with specific coverage of Christianity and Islam to cover everything students need to get the best marks in the exam.

Aristotle

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Aristotle by Associate Professor of Philosophy and Classics Christopher Shields,Christopher Shields Book Summary:

In this excellent introduction, Christopher Shields introduces and assesses the whole of Aristotle’s philosophy, showing how his powerful conception of human nature shaped much of his thinking on the nature of the soul and the mind, ethics, politics and the arts. Beginning with a brief biography, Christopher Shields carefully explains the fundamental elements of Aristotle’s thought: his explanatory framework, his philosophical methodology and his four-causal explanatory scheme. Subsequently he discusses Aristotle’s metaphysics and the theory of categories and logical theory and his conception of the human being and soul and body. In the last part, he concentrates on Aristotle’s value theory as applied to ethics and politics, and assesses his approach to happiness, virtues and the best life for human beings. He concludes with an appraisal of Aristotelianism today.

A Critical Psychology

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A Critical Psychology by Edmund V. Sullivan Book Summary:

If the reader will excuse a brief anecdote from my own intellectual history, I would like to use it as an introduction to this book. In 1957, I was a sophomore at an undergraduate liberal arts college major ing in medieval history. This was the year that we were receiving our first introduction to courses in philosophy, and I took to this study with a passion. In pursuing philosophy, I discovered the area called "philosophical psychology," which was a Thomistic category of inquiry. For me, "philosophical psychology" meant a more intimate study of the soul (psyche), and I immediately concluded that psychology as a discipline must be about this pursuit. This philosophical interest led me to enroll in my first introductory psychology course. Our text for this course was the first edition of Ernest Hilgaard's Introduction to Psychology. My reasons for entering this course were anticipated in the introductory chapter of Hilgaard's book, where the discipline and its boundaries were discussed, and this introduction was to disabuse me of my original intention for enrolling in the course. I was to learn that, in the 20th century, people who called themselves psychologists were no longer interested in perennial philosophical questions about the human psyche or person. In fact, these philosophical questions were considered to be obscurantist and passe. Psychology was now the "scientific" study of human behavior. This definition of psychology by Hilgaard was by no means idiosyncratic to this introductory textbook.

Dependencies, Connections, and Other Relations

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Dependencies, Connections, and Other Relations by Wim de Muijnck Book Summary:

This work covers, in its subsequent parts, ontology, the metaphysics of causation, and the philosophy of mind. It provides a firm theoretical basis for believing that in our all-physical world mental causation is perfectly real, and that it can be understood.

Recent Themes in the Philosophy of Science

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Recent Themes in the Philosophy of Science by S. Clarke,T.D. Lyons Book Summary:

Australia and New Zealand boast an active community of scholars working in the field of history, philosophy and social studies of science. Australasian Studies in History and Philosophy of Science aims to provide a distinctive publication outlet for their work. Each volume comprises a group of thematically-connected essays edited by scholars based in Australia or New Zealand with special expertise in that particular area. In each volume, a majority ofthe contributors are from Australia or New Zealand. Contributions from elsewhere are by no means ruled out, however, and are actively encouraged wherever appropriate to the balance of the volume in question. Earlier volumes in the series have been welcomed for significantly advancing the discussion of the topics they have dealt with. I believe that the present volume will be greeted equally enthusiastically by readers in many parts of the world. R. W. Home General Editor Australasian Studies in History And Philosophy of Science viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The majority of the papers in this collection had their origin in the 2001 Australasian Association for History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Science annual conference, held at the University of Melbourne, where streams of papers on the themes of scientific realism and commonsense were organised.

Rethinking Our Story

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Rethinking Our Story by G. Douglas Hammack Book Summary:

"If it ain't broke, don't fix it." But it's no secret that the Christian church is "broke," and does need fixing. Despite great effort, things are going badly for us. We've tried trendy and tech-savvy, entrepreneurial and coffee-house gritty. They're not helping. Our problem is deeper than that. Our problem is our instincts--instincts informed by our story. There was a time when the Christian church was a powerfully transformative presence in society. It can be again--but it will require radical rethinking of the story that informs our instincts. And it's time! It's been five hundred years since the Reformation, our last major update. Today is a pivotal moment in history. With our worldview upended by quantum physics, history is demanding we renew the Christian story for our times. Rethinking Our Story reframes the elements of the Christian narrative for the new era. It explores "quantum" ways of thinking about God, human nature, Jesus, salvation, and the afterlife. The future of the church and the health of our society depend on our willingness to rethink, retell, and live out a better story. We will either update our instincts and contribute to the earth's well-being--or disappear into oblivion.

The Good Wife and Philosophy

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The Good Wife and Philosophy by Kimberly Baltzer-Jaray,Robert Arp Book Summary:

In The Good Wife and Philosophy, fifteen philosophers look at the deeper issues raised by this stirring TV drama. The Good Wife gives us courtroom battles in the tradition of Perry Mason, with the added dimension of a political intrigue and a tormented personal story. We witness the interplay between common morality and legal correctness; sometimes following one violates the other. Lawyers operate within the law and within legal ethics, yet routinely do harmful things in pursuit of their clients’ interests. The adversarial system leads to such strategies as stringing out a case to exhaust the other side’s resources and bringing suits ostensibly because of wrongdoing by defendants but really to curtail the defendants as a competitive threat to some important client’s interest. The idea for The Good Wife came from the recurring news drama of wives standing by their husbands when scandal breaks: the wives of Bill Clinton, Elliott Spitzer, and John Edwards. Often these politicians’ spouses are themselves lawyers who have had to cope with the gray areas of legal battles and maneuvering. Following her husband’s disgrace and imprisonment, Alicia Florrick has to return to the law, which she abandoned for the sake of being a full-time wife and mother.

Reason and Action

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Reason and Action by Bruce Aune Book Summary:

Philosophers writing on the subject of human action have found it tempting to introduce their subject by raising Wittgenstein's question, 'What is left over if you subtract the fact that my arm goes up from the fact that I raise my arm?' The presumption is that something of particular interest is involved in an action of raising an arm that is not present in a mere bodily movement, and the philosopher's task is to specify just what this is. Unfortunately, such an approach does not take us very far, since a person could properly be said to raise his (or her) arm while asleep or hypnotized even though he (or she) would not be performing an action in the sense of 'action' with which philosophers are particularly concerned. To avoid this kind of difficulty I shall approach the subject of human action is a more academic way: I shall expound some important rival theories of human action, and introduce the relevant issues by commenting critically on those theories. One of the issues I eventually introduce is a metaphysical one. A theory of action makes sense, I contend, only on the assumption that there are such 'things' as actions (or events). After considering some key arguments bearing on the issue I conclude that, as matters currently stand in philosophy, a metaphysically noncommittal attitude toward actions and events seems justified.

Contexts of Nursing

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Contexts of Nursing by John Daly,Sandra Speedy,Debra Jackson Book Summary:

Contexts of Nursing 3e builds on the strengths of previous editions and continues to provide nursing students with comprehensive coverage of core ideas and perspectives underpinning the practice of nursing. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. New material on Cultural Awareness and Contemporary Approaches in Nursing has been introduced to reflect the realities of practice. Nursing themes are discussed from an Australian and New Zealand perspective and are supported by illustrated examples and evidence. Each chapter focuses on an area of study within the undergraduate nursing program and the new edition continues its discussions on history, culture, ethics, law, technology, and professional issues within the field of nursing. update and revised with strong contributions from a wide range of experienced educators from around Australia & New Zealand new Chapter 17 Becoming a Nurse Leader has been introduced into the third edition to highlight the ongoing need of management in practice Chapter 20 Cultural Awareness Nurses working with indigenous people is a new chapter which explores cultural awareness, safety and competence Chapter 22 Using informatics to expand awareness engages the reader on the benefits of using technology evidence-based approach is integrated throughout the text learning objectives, key words and reflective questions are included in all chapters

Logic

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Logic by Greg Restall Book Summary:

The methods of logic are essential to an understanding of philosophy and are crucial in the study of mathematics, computing, linguistics and many other subjects. Introducing the major concepts and techniques involved in the study of logic, this authoritative book explores both formal and philosophical logic, and the ways in which we can achieve good reasoning. Individual chapters include: * Propositions and Arguments * Truth Tables * Trees * Conditionality * Natural Deduction * Predicates, Names and Quantifiers * Definite Descriptions. This exceptionally clear introduction to the subject is ideally suited to students taking introductory courses in logic.

Reason and Value

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Reason and Value by E. J. Bond Book Summary:

A distinctive contribution to the subject of the relations between reason, motivation and value

Noble in Reason, Infinite in Faculty

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Noble in Reason, Infinite in Faculty by A.W. Moore Book Summary:

In this bold and innovative new work, Adrian Moore poses the question of whether it is possible for ethical thinking to be grounded in pure reason. In order to understand and answer this question, he takes a refreshing and challenging look at Kant’s moral and religious philosophy. Identifying three Kantian Themes – morality, freedom and religion – and presenting variations on each of these themes in turn, Moore concedes that there are difficulties with the Kantian view that morality can be governed by ‘pure’ reason. He does however defend a closely related view involving a notion of reason as socially and culturally conditioned. In the course of doing this, Moore considers in detail, ideas at the heart of Kant’s thought, such as the categorical imperative, free will, evil, hope, eternal life and God. He also makes creative use of the ideas in contemporary philosophy, both within the analytic tradition and outside it, such as ‘thick’ ethical concepts, forms of life and ‘becoming those that we are’. Throughout the book, a guiding precept is that to be rational is to make sense, and that nothing is of greater value to use than making sense.

How to Do Things With Rules

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How to Do Things With Rules by William Twining,David Miers Book Summary:

"Demystifies legal method by combining a wide variety of concrete examples with a general account of rules in general." - cover.

How to Do Things with Logic

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How to Do Things with Logic by C. Grant Luckhardt,William Bechtel Book Summary:

In the past 15 years a host of critical thinking books have appeared that teach students to find flaws in the arguments of others by learning to detect a number of informal fallacies. This book is not in that tradition. The authors of this book believe that while students learn to become vicious critics, they still continue to make the very mistakes they criticize in others. Thus, this book has adopted the approach of teaching the construction of good arguments first and then introducing criticism as a secondary skill. Moreover, the emphasis of the book is not on learning to name fallacies, but on being able to identify weaknesses in an argument so as to be able to construct an effective critique of that argument. The book is accompanied by a workbook featuring a wealth of examples to help students acquire the material.

Reasons for Action

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Reasons for Action by B.C. Postow Book Summary:

2 first-person point of view, I acknowledge these possible handicaps and try to overcome them. Other people may coherently judge that I am incapable of figuring out correctly what I rationally ought to do, or they may inform me of reasons of which I had heretofore been ignorant, or they may try to help me overcome intellectual hindrances. Like me, these people would be assuming that the goal is to identify what I really rationally ought to do. Nevertheless, we are concerned with reasons for the agent to act in a certain way, rather than with reasons, say, for someone to want it to be the case that the agent act. Thus to be a reason in our sense is to be a consideration which has an appropriate guiding role to play in the. agents deliberation. (An agent is guided by reasons if she determines what to do in light of the reasons. ) Suppose then that a nor mative theory says that it is supremely desirable, or that it rationally ought to be the case, that agents act in a way that maximizes the general utility, but that (since the general utility is never in fact maximized by those who pay attention to it) considerations of the general utility should play no role in the agents' deliberation. Such a theory would not be said to ascribe to agents a reason to maximize the general utility on our usage.

The Best Damn Management Book Ever

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The Best Damn Management Book Ever by Warren Greshes Book Summary:

A practical guidebook to managing a stellar staff of high-achievers The Best Damn Management Book Ever teaches managers, executives, and business owners how to create a staff of self-motivated, confident, high-achieving, self-starters. Acclaimed author of The Best Damn Sales Book Ever, Warren Greshes draws from years of experience to offer practical, easy-to-implement steps explained through entertaining, informative real-life stories. Learn to communicate more effectively with the people who report to you. The Best Damn Management Book Ever delivers actionable advice to hone your leadership skills. Install the self-starting generator in your people, enabling them to perform at a high level whether you're there or not Gain insight and determine each employee's "Hot Buttons" and motivators Correctly manage the three distinct groups that comprise every organization Delegate more effectively Use your time as a manager, executive, and business owner more efficiently Become the best damn leader your staff needs to achieve their goals and blow away the competition.

Ethics as Social Conscience

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Ethics as Social Conscience by Walter L. Battaglia Book Summary:

Battaglia departs from the beaten paths of ethical theory by proposing that morality is social in nature, and that moral maxims and values are the result of interactive processes. (Philosophy)

The Millionaire Messenger

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The Millionaire Messenger by Brendon Burchard Book Summary:

When Brendon Burchard was 19 years old he was in a life-changing car crash. After speeding around a hairpin turn in the Dominican Republic he and his friend were catapulted into the air, and, as the car flipped, Brendon pondered three essential questions: Did I live? Did I love? Did I matter?When the car landed and to his amazement he was still alive, Brendon realized that he didn't yet have satisfying answers to those questions, but he did have an idea as to how to get them. He began the process of crafting his life story into one that would make a difference in the world, inspire others and show them how they too could share their passions with a wide audience. After some initial struggles, Brendon launched what has become a million dollar consulting, book writing, and speaking business, all based on his mission to spread his message to the world. In The Millionaire Messenger, Brendon offers a 10-step plan that will help readers develop their message, package their advice in an attractive way, gain a following, and, perhaps most importantly, make money in this effort. By following his program, ordinary people can learn to package their struggles, successes, research, or life's story into advice for others and become experts on any given topic. In the industry of people who share their advice and knowledge with the world and get paid for it, Burchard is the 'guru's guru.'

Doing Things with Things

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Doing Things with Things by Alan Costall,Ole Dreier Book Summary:

It has been claimed that the natural sciences have abstracted for themselves a 'material world' set apart from human concerns, and social sciences, in their turn, constructed 'a world of actors devoid of things'. While a subject such as archaeology, by its very nature, takes objects into account, other disciplines, such as psychology, emphasize internal mental structures and other non-material issues. This book brings together a team of contributors from across the social sciences who have been taking 'things' more seriously to examine how people relate to objects. The contributors focus on every day objects and how these objects enter into our activities over the course of time. Using a combination of different theoretical approaches, including actor network theory, ecological psychology, cognitive linguistics and science and technology studies, the book argues against the standard notion of objects and their properties as inert and meaningless and argues for the need to understand the relations between people and objects in terms of process and change.

Making the Social World

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Making the Social World by John Searle Book Summary:

There are few more important philosophers at work today than John Searle, a creative and contentious thinker who has shaped the way we think about mind and language. Now he offers a profound understanding of how we create a social reality--a reality of money, property, governments, marriages, stock markets and cocktail parties. The paradox he addresses in Making the Social World is that these facts only exist because we think they exist and yet they have an objective existence. Continuing a line of investigation begun in his earlier book The Construction of Social Reality, Searle identifies the precise role of language in the creation of all "institutional facts." His aim is to show how mind, language and civilization are natural products of the basic facts of the physical world described by physics, chemistry and biology. Searle explains how a single linguistic operation, repeated over and over, is used to create and maintain the elaborate structures of human social institutions. These institutions serve to create and distribute power relations that are pervasive and often invisible. These power relations motivate human actions in a way that provides the glue that holds human civilization together. Searle then applies the account to show how it relates to human rationality, the freedom of the will, the nature of political power and the existence of universal human rights. In the course of his explication, he asks whether robots can have institutions, why the threat of force so often lies behind institutions, and he denies that there can be such a thing as a "state of nature" for language-using human beings.

Social Action

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Social Action by Gottfried Seebaß,R. Tuomela Book Summary:

The papers contained in this volume are based on the contributions to an international, interdisciplinary Symposium entitled 'Analytical and Sociologi cal Action Theories' which took place in Berlin (West) on September 1-3, 1982. Each part comprises a main paper followed by two (in Part IV three) papers commenting on it. On the whole there is an equal division into philo sophical and sociological papers. In particular each main paper receives both inter- and innerdisciplinary comments. The Berlin Symposium was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Bonn) and, to a smaller extent, by the Freie UniversiHit Berlin; both grants are acknowledged gratefully. Berlin and Helsinki, May 1984 GOTTFRIED SEEBASS RAIMO TUOMELA vii GOTTFRIED SEEBASS INTRODUCTION I. It is a striking fact that the extended efforts of both sociologists and analytical philosophers to work out what is termed a 'theory of action' have taken little, if any, account of each other. Yet of the various reasons for this that come to mind none appears to be such as to foil any hopes for fruitful interdisciplinary exchange. Being concerned, apparently, with the same set of phenomena, viz. individual and social actions, the two theories can reasonably be expected to be partially overlapping as well as competitive and complementary. Accordingly each can eventually be shown by the other to need completion or revision. Whether or to what extent this is the case is subject to inquiry and discussion.

Buying Freedom

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Buying Freedom by Laurance S Rockefeller University Professor of Philosophy and the University Center for Human Values Kwame Anthony Appiah,Anthony Appiah,Martin Bunzl Book Summary:

In this examination of the practical and ethical implications of slave redemption the authors deal with questions such as: Does redeeming slaves actually increase the demand for -and so the number of- slaves? And what about cases where it is far from clear that redemption will improve the material condition or increase the real freedom, of a slave?

Imitation and Education

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Imitation and Education by Bryan R. Warnick Book Summary:

Brings together current research in philosophy, cognitive science, and education to uncover and criticize the traditional assumptions of how and why we should learn through imitation.

Reasons, Rights, and Values

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Reasons, Rights, and Values by Robert Audi Book Summary:

A wide-ranging collection of essays on reasons, rights, values, and virtues, by a leading philosopher of ethics.

The Knowing-Doing Gap

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The Knowing-Doing Gap by Jeffrey Pfeffer,Robert I. Sutton Book Summary:

Why are there so many gaps between what firms know they should do and what they actually do? Why do so many companies fail to implement the experience and insight they've worked so hard to acquire? The Knowing-Doing Gap is the first book to confront the challenge of turning knowledge about how to improve performance into actions that produce measurable results. Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert Sutton, well-known authors and teachers, identify the causes of the knowing-doing gap and explain how to close it. The message is clear--firms that turn knowledge into action avoid the "smart talk trap." Executives must use plans, analysis, meetings, and presentations to inspire deeds, not as substitutes for action. Companies that act on their knowledge also eliminate fear, abolish destructive internal competition, measure what matters, and promote leaders who understand the work people do in their firms. The authors use examples from dozens of firms that show how some overcome the knowing-doing gap, why others try but fail, and how still others avoid the gap in the first place. The Knowing-Doing Gap is sure to resonate with executives everywhere who struggle daily to make their firms both know and do what they know. It is a refreshingly candid, useful, and realistic guide for improving performance in today's business.

Acting on Principles

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Acting on Principles by Janko Zagar OP Book Summary:

Acting on Principles, the product of over thirty years of teaching, gives a comprehensive overview of the Moral Theology of St. Thomas Aquinas, placing it in dialogue with contemporary ethical theory and developments in Catholic theology since the Second Vatican Council. Suitable for students of ethics and moral theology, and general readers seeking Christian guidance in the formation of conscience and moral decision making, it presents the classical Catholic ethical tradition in a clear and lively style.

How Your Child Heals

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How Your Child Heals by Christopher M. Johnson Book Summary:

All children get sick now and then, and most of the time they soon get well. How do they do that? How does it happen? When a mother brings her sick child to the doctor for something trivial, like a runny nose, or for something more serious, like difficulty breathing, she usually hears from the doctor that this or that treatment will make the child better, or that no treatment is needed at all. Some parents are content with little information; others want to know how a child heals and why things work the way they do. Here, Johnson takes readers on a tour of the inner workings of a child's body as it heals from injury, illness, and common diseases. Readers will be fascinated by just how healing works and what they can do to assist in the process.

Rooted: A Modern Mind

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Rooted: A Modern Mind by Mark Daniel Osborne Book Summary:

Journey through a modern mind to discover the relationship that you have with every aspect of life. Mark Daniel Osborne has tried everything he can to find the essence of the meaning of life - from years in a cult, through years of investigation, to years of navel-gazing and experiment. Raise your consciousness by following him through the darkest recesses of his middle-class mind in order to find a stronger connection with your world. Or just savour the slow-motion train wreck of a shy guy prostrating himself emotionally. Enjoy the ride...

Person and Object

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Person and Object by Roderick M. Chisholm Book Summary:

First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision

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Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision by Robert Audi Book Summary:

Presenting the most comprehensive and lucid account of the topic currently available, Robert Audi's "Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision" is essential reading for anyone interested in the role of reason in ethics or the nature of human action. The first part of the book is a detailed critical overview of the influential theories of practical reasoning found in Aristotle, Hume and Kant, whilst the second part examines practical reasoning in the light of important topics in moral psychology - weakness of will, self-deception, rationalization and others. In the third part, Audi describes the role of moral principles in practical reasoning and clarifies the way practical reasoning underlies ethical decisions. He formulates a comprehensive set of concrete ethical principles, explains how they apply to reasoning about what to do, and shows how practical reasoning guides moral conduct.

Government Support for Beagle 2,Twelfth Report of Session 2003-04,Report,Together with Formal Minutes,Oral and Written Evidence

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Government Support for Beagle 2,Twelfth Report of Session 2003-04,Report,Together with Formal Minutes,Oral and Written Evidence by Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Science and Technology Committee Book Summary:

The focus of this inquiry, by the Science and Technology Committee, was the support by the UK Government for the Beagle 2 project developed as part of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Mars Express mission. The Committee found the Government showed enthusiasm for this project, but was unable to provide a guaranteed financial backing for the development of a lander, resulting in a failure to secure sufficient sponsorship income, which was subsequently seen to have a detrimental impact on the project's success. The Committee feels, that Government needs to put in place a system that can deal with major financial commitments at short notice. In hindsight, the development of the lander and orbiter separately is seen as wrong, impeding the flexible co-ordination of the mission, leading to tensions between the Beagle 2 consortium, ESA and other contractors. Further, there was a lack of co-ordinated oversight between these three groups, and therefore a failure to identify important weaknesses in the mission. Despite the failure of Beagle, the Committee does see some positive potential for future projects, both in scientific and educational benefits, but that the costs of such projects would benefit from greater participation by other organizations.