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Coptic Christianity In Ottoman Egypt

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Coptic Christianity in Ottoman Egypt

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Coptic Christianity in Ottoman Egypt by Febe Armanios Book Summary:

This monograph examines the religious beliefs and traditions of Christians in Ottoman Egypt and to understand Coptic religious expression in the context of its surrounding culture. More broadly, this study reveals Ottoman society's diversity by examining the intimate interaction between Muslim and Christian practice.

History of the Coptic Orthodox People and the Church of Egypt

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History of the Coptic Orthodox People and the Church of Egypt by Robert Morgan Book Summary:

Egypt was trampled by almost every great power in the world. Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Persians, Turks, French, and English. Each came with their own agenda, greed and avarice. looting and pillaging the riches of Egypt, In many instances the proud people resisted staunchly, but in many others they fell to their invaders. The Egyptians adopted Christianity early on, after the evangelist martyr Saint Mark visited the country. Christianity flowed in Egypt like the River Nile that flows through the arid dessert and rapidly transformed its people into ardent believers, saints and martyrs for the sake of their savior. This is the story of the Copt Christians of Egypt, they still inhabit the narrow Nile Valley till today, against all odds. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt still persist on this spot of land in spite of centuries of marginalizing, ostracizing and sanctioned persecutions. This book tells the story of the Copts of Egypt throughout the ages, the descendants of the great Pharaohs of Egypt....

Christianity and Monasticism in Northern Egypt

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Christianity and Monasticism in Northern Egypt by Gawdat Gabra,Hany N. Takla Book Summary:

Christianity and monasticism have long flourished in the northern part of Upper Egypt and in the Nile Delta, from Beni Suef to the Mediterranean coast. The contributors to this volume, international specialists in Coptology from around the world, examine various aspects of Coptic civilization in northern Egypt over the past two millennia. The studies explore Coptic art and archaeology, architecture, language, and literature. The artistic heritage of monastic sites in the region is highlighted, attesting to their important legacies.

The Coptic Christian Heritage

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The Coptic Christian Heritage by Lois M. Farag Book Summary:

This book offers a comprehensive introduction to the heritage of Coptic Christians. The contributors combine academic expertise with intimate and practical knowledge of the Coptic Orthodox Church and Coptic heritage. The chapters explore historical, cultural, literary and material aspects, including: the history of Christianity in Egypt, from the pre-Christian era to the modern day Coptic religious culture: theology, monasticism, spirituality, liturgy and music the Coptic language, linguistic expressions of the Coptic heritage and literary production in Greek, Coptic and Arabic . material culture and artistic expression of the Copts: from icons, mosaics and frescos to manuscript illuminations, woodwork and textiles. Students will find The Coptic Christian Heritage an invaluable introduction, whilst scholars will find its breadth provides a helpful context for specialised research.

Islamic Law in Action

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Islamic Law in Action by Kristen Stilt Book Summary:

A dynamic account of the practice of Islamic law, this book focuses on the actions of a particular legal official, the muhtasib, whose vast jurisdiction included all public behavior. In the cities of Cairo and neighboring Fustat during the Mamluk period (1250-1517), the men who held the position of muhtasib acted as regulators of markets and public spaces generally. They traversed their jurisdictions carrying out the duty to command right and forbid wrong, and were as much a part of the legal landscape as the better-known figures of judge and mufti. Taking directions from the rulers, the sultan foremost among them, they were also guided by legal doctrine as formulated by the jurists, combining these two sources of law in one face of authority. The daily workings of the law are illuminated by the reports of the muhtasib in the vivid Mamluk-era chronicles, which often also captured the responses of the individuals who encountered the official. The book is organized around actions taken by the muhtasib in the areas of Muslim devotional and pious practices; crimes and offenses; the management of Christians and Jews; market regulation and consumer protection; the specific markets for essential bread; currency and taxes; and public order. The case studies presented show that while legal doctrine was clearly relevant to the muhtasib's actions, the policy demands of the sultan were also quite significant, and rules from both sources of authority intersected with social, political, economic, and personal factors to create full and vibrant scenarios that reveal the practice of Islamic law.

The Emergence of the Modern Coptic Papacy

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The Emergence of the Modern Coptic Papacy by Magdi Guirguis,Majdī Jirjis,Nelly van Doorn-Harder,Pieternella van Doorn-Harder Book Summary:

Using court, financial and building records, as well as archives from the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate and monasteries, Magdi Guirguis has reconstructed the authority of the popes and the organization of the Coptic community during this time.

Halal Food

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Halal Food by Febe Armanios,Bogaç Ergene Book Summary:

Rules -- Meat -- Slaughter -- Intoxicants -- Business -- Standards -- Manufactured products -- Wholesome -- Cuisine -- Eating out

The Role of the Copts in the National Movement in Egypt Until the 1919 Revolution

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The Role of the Copts in the National Movement in Egypt Until the 1919 Revolution by Kathrin Nina Wiedl Book Summary:

Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject Orientalism / Sinology - Islamic Studies, grade: 1,3, Ben Gurion University (Middle East Institute), course: Religious and Ethnic Minorities/ Communities in the Modern Middle East, 19 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: This term paper describes the role of the Copts as a Christian minority in the national independence movement in Egypt, from 1879 until the 1919 revolution. It raises the question, what factors determined their changing role from a minority, excluded by the Islamistic tendencies of the movement, to their full and equal participation during the 1919 revolution., abstract: During the 1919 revolution, under the slogan Egypt for Egyptians," the Copts fought hand in hand with their Muslim brothers for national independence of Egypt from Britain. The banner of the revolution was a cross within a crescent, the ancient incompatibility of Christianity and Islam seemed to be abolished. Only one decade earlier this unity seemed impossible, after the assassination of the Copt Prime Minister Butrus Ghali, the mob in the streets of Cairo had been praising the murder with slogans, such as: " Wasrani (the name of the killer), Wasrani, who killed the nasrani (Christian)." And the Coptic newspaper Al-Watan had stated in 1908 that "The Copts are the true Egyptians and the Islamic conquest of Egypt was oppressive." The role of the Copts in the national movement is as complex and ambiguous as the national movement itself. We have to weight and consider various factors together in order to understand the different roles of the Copts in the movement during this period. We also have to differentiate between Coptic Clerks, fellahin and urban Copts as well as between the Muslim mob and the Muslim leaders of the national movement, latter often influenced by ideas of western enlightenment. This paper will examine the factors that determined the role of the Coptic minority in the Muslim-dominated national"

Motherland Lost

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Motherland Lost by Samuel Tadros Book Summary:

Samuel Tadros provides a clear understanding of Copts—the native Egyptian Christians—and their crisis of modernity in conjunction with the overall developments in Egypt as it faced its own struggles with modernity. He argues that the modern plight of Copts is inseparable from the crisis of modernity and the answers developed to address that crisis by the Egyptian state and intellectuals, as well as by the Coptic Church and laypeople.

The Early Coptic Papacy

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The Early Coptic Papacy by Stephen J. Davis Book Summary:

The Copts, adherents of the Egyptian Orthodox Church, today represent the largest Christian community in the Middle East, and their presiding bishops have been accorded the title of pope since the third century AD. This study analyzes the development of the Egyptian papacy from its origins to the rise of Islam. How did the papal office in Egypt evolve as a social and religious institution during the first six and a half centuries AD? How do the developments in the Alexandrian patriarchate reflect larger developments in the Egyptian church as a whole--in its structures of authority and lines of communication, as well as in its social and religious practices? In addressing such questions, Stephen J. Davis examines a wide range of evidence--letters, sermons, theological treatises, and church histories, as well as art, artifacts, and archaeological remains--to discover what the patriarchs did as leaders, how their leadership was represented in public discourses, and how those representations definitively shaped Egyptian Christian identity in late antiquity. The Early Coptic Papacy is Volume 1 of The Popes of Egypt: A History of the Coptic Church and Its Patriarchs. Also available: Volume 2, The Coptic Papacy in Islamic Egypt, 641-1517 (Mark N. Swanson) and Volume 3, The Emergence of the Modern Coptic Papacy (Magdi Girgis, Nelly van Doorn-Harder).

The Coptic Question in the Mubarak Era

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The Coptic Question in the Mubarak Era by Sebastian Elsässer Book Summary:

Egypt's Christians, the Copts, are the largest Christian community in the Middle East. While they have always been considered an integral component of the Egyptian nation, their precise status within Egyptian politics and society has been subject to ongoing debates from the Twentieth Century to present day. Part of the legacy of the Mubarak era (1980-2011) in Egypt is the unsettled state of Muslim-Christian relations and the increasing volatility of sectarian tensions, which also overshadowed the first years of the post-Mubarak period. The Coptic Question in the Mubarak Era delves into the discourses that dominated public debates and the political agenda-setting during the Mubarak era, explaining why politicians and the public in Egypt have had such enormous difficulties in recognizing the real roots of sectarian strife. This "Coptic question" is a complex set of issues, ranging from the petty struggles of daily Egyptian life in a bi-religious society to intricate legal andconstitutional questions (family law, conversion, and church-building), to the issue of the political participation of the Coptic minority. Through these subjects, the book explores a larger debate about Egyptian national identity. With special attention paid to the neglected diversity of voices within the Coptic community, The Coptic Question in the Mubarak Era uncovers the historical layers of the situation to provide a comprehensive analysis of the political and social underpinnings of this timely issue.

Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity

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Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity by Otto Friedrich August Meinardus Book Summary:

Christianity arrived early in Egypt, brought--according to tradition--by Saint Mark the Evangelist, who became the first patriarch of Alexandria. The Coptic Orthodox Church has flourished ever since, with millions of adherents both in Egypt and in Coptic communities around the world. Since its split from the Byzantine Church in 451, the Coptic Church has proudly maintained its early traditions, and influence from outside has been minimal: the liturgy is still sung to unique rhythms in Coptic, a late stage of the same ancient Egyptian language that is inscribed in hieroglyphs on temple walls and papyri. Dr. Otto Meinardus, a leading authority on the history of the Coptic Church, here revises, updates, and combines his renowned studies Christian Egypt, Ancient and Modern (The American University in Cairo Press, 1965, 1977) and Christian Egypt, Faith and Life (The American University in Cairo Press, 1970) into a new, definitive, one-volume history for the Millennium, surveying the twenty centuries of existence of one of the oldest churches in the world.

The Political Lives of Saints

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The Political Lives of Saints by Angie Heo Book Summary:

"Since the Arab Spring in 2011 and ISIS's rise in 2014, Egypt's Copts have attracted attention worldwide as the collateral damage of revolution and as victims of sectarian strife. Countering the din of persecution rhetoric and Islamophobia, The Political Lives of Saints journeys into the quieter corners of divine intercession to consider what martyrs, miracles, and mysteries have to do with the more routine challenges faced by Christians and Muslims living together under the modern nation-state. Drawing on years of extensive fieldwork, Angie Heo argues for understanding popular saints as material media that organize social relations between Christians and Muslims in Egypt toward varying political ends. With an ethnographer's eye for traces of antiquity, she deciphers how long-cherished imaginaries of holiness broker bonds of revolutionary sacrifice, reconfigure national sites of sacred territory, and pose sectarian threats to security and order. A study of tradition and nationhood at their limits, The Political Lives of Saints shows that Coptic Orthodoxy is a core domain of minoritarian regulation and authoritarian rule, powerfully reversing the recurrent thesis of its impending extinction in the Arab Muslim world"--Provided by publisher.

Advances in the Economics of Religion

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Advances in the Economics of Religion by Jean-Paul Carvalho,Sriya Iyer,Jared Rubin Book Summary:

This edited collection brings together expertise from around the globe to overview and debate key concepts and concerns in the economics of religion. While the economics of religion is a relatively new field of research in economics, economists have made and continue to make important contributions to the understanding of religion. There is much scope for economists to continue to make a significant contribution to debates about religion, including its implications for conflict, political economy, public goods, demography, education, finance, trade and economic growth.

Christianity in the Land of the Pharaohs

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Christianity in the Land of the Pharaohs by Jill Kamil Book Summary:

The Copts - the indigenous Christians of Egypt - declared their independence from Byzantine Christianity when they appointed their own patriarchs in the sixth century. Jill Kamil has written an angaging and accessible survey of the history of Christianity on Egypt, through its development under Rome, Byzantium and Islam, to modern times. Drawing on personal travel to all the Christian sites of Egypt, and conversations with scholars, monks, museum directors, and scores of lay Egyptians both Copt and Muslim, the author tells us about the fundamental importance of Coptic religion and culture in Egypt. Weaving together historical research with absorbing stories, she explores questions as: * How did Christianity suceed in an Egypt that already had an established religion which had lasted for more than 300 years? * What part did Egypt play in the evolvement of the early Christian movement? * What led the Copts to develop monasticism? * Why were there so many Egyptian martyrs? * What caused the Coptic Church to break away from the rest of orthodox Christianity in the sixth century AD? Lavishly illustrated with more than 120 photographs, drawings and maps, Christianity in the Land of the Pharaohs offers a captivating insight into a side if Egypt that will be new to many readers. It is ideal not only for students of Egyptian history and Christianity, as well as those with a more general interst in Egypt's past and present.

Christians in Egypt

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Christians in Egypt by Andrea B. Rugh Book Summary:

Christians in the Middle East have come under increasing pressure in recent years with the rise of radical Islam. In Egypt, the large Coptic Christian community has traditionally played an important political and historical role. This book examines Egyptian Christians' responses to sectarian pressures in both national and local contexts.

Witnesses for Christ

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Witnesses for Christ by Nomikos Michael Vaporis Book Summary:

"This, however, is not simply a collection of hagiographic stories. Here, the Lives are retold in a fluid, easy-to-read manner, and set in an historical context to make them more accessible to the reader. Also of great interest are the many translations of the dialogue between the Neomartyrs and the Ottoman judges (kadi), during the three interrogations that were mandated by Islamic law."--BOOK JACKET.

The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, 2 Volume Set

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The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, 2 Volume Set by John Anthony McGuckin Book Summary:

With a combination of essay-length and short entries written by a team of leading religious experts, the two-volume Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodoxy offers the most comprehensive guide to the cultural and intellectual world of Eastern Orthodox Christianity available in English today. An outstanding reference work providing the first English language multi-volume account of the key historical, liturgical, doctrinal features of Eastern Orthodoxy, including the Non-Chalcedonian churches Explores of the major traditions of Eastern Orthodoxy in detail, including the Armenian, Byzantine, Coptic, Ethiopic, Slavic, Romanian, Syriac churches Uniquely comprehensive, it is edited by one of the leading scholars in the field and provides authoritative but accessible articles by a range of top international academics and Orthodox figures Spans the period from Late Antiquity to the present, encompassing subjects including history, theology, liturgy, monasticism, sacramentology, canon law, philosophy, folk culture, architecture, archaeology, martyrology, hagiography, all alongside a large and generously detailed prosopography Structured alphabetically and topically cross-indexed, with entries ranging from 100 to 6,000 words

All the Pasha's Men

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All the Pasha's Men by Khaled Fahmy,Ḵālid Maḥmūd Fahmī Book Summary:

While scholarship has traditionally viewed Mehmed Ali Pasha as the founder of modern Egypt, Khaled Fahmy offers a new interpretation of his role in the rise of Egyptian nationalism, firmly locating him within the Ottoman context as an ambitious, if problematic, Ottoman reformer. Basing his work on previously neglected archival material, the author demonstrates how Mehmed Ali sought to develop the Egyptian economy and to build up the army, not as a means of gaining Egyptian independence from the Ottoman empire, but to further his own ambitions for recognized hereditary rule over the province. By focusing on the army and the soldier's daily experiences, the author constructs a detailed picture of attempts at modernization and reform, how they were planned and implemented by various reformers, and how the public at large understood and accommodated them. In this way, the work contributes to the larger methodological and theoretical debates concerning nation-building and the construction of state power in the particular context of early nineteenth-century Egypt.

Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule, 1517-1798

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Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule, 1517-1798 by Michael Winter Book Summary:

Michael Winter's book presents a panoramic view of Ottoman Egypt from the overthrow of the Mamluk Sultanate in 1517 to Bonaparte's invasion of 1798 and the beginning of Egypt's modern period. Drawing on archive material, chronicle and travel accounts from Turkish, Arabic, Hebrew and European sources as well as up-to-date research, this comprehensive social history looks at the dynamics of the Egyptian-Ottoman relationship and the ethnic and cultural clashes which characterised the period. The conflicts between Ottoman pashas and their Egyptian subjects and between Bedouin Arabs and the more sedentary population are presented, as is the role of women in this period and the importance of the doctrinal clash of Islam both orthodox and popular, Christianity and Judaism. Winter's broad survey of a complex and dynamic society draws out the central theme of the emergence, from a period of ethnic and religious tension, of an Egyptian consciousness fundamental to Egypt's later development.

The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 5, Eastern Christianity

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The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 5, Eastern Christianity by Michael Angold Book Summary:

This volume encompasses the whole Christian Orthodox tradition from 1200 to the present. Its central theme is the survival of Orthodoxy against the odds into the modern era. It celebrates the resilience shown in the face of hostile regimes and social pressures in this often-neglected period of Orthodox history.

Honored by the Glory of Islam

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Honored by the Glory of Islam by Marc David Baer Book Summary:

Marc David Baer proposes a novel approach to the historical record of Islamic conversions during the Ottoman age and gathers fresh insights concerning the nature of religious conversion itself. Rather than explaining Ottoman Islamization in terms of the converts' motives, Baer concentrates on the proselytizing sultan Mehmet IV (1648-87).

Religious Difference in a Secular Age

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Religious Difference in a Secular Age by Saba Mahmood Book Summary:

The plight of religious minorities in the Middle East is often attributed to the failure of secularism to take root in the region. Religious Difference in a Secular Age challenges this assessment by examining four cornerstones of secularism—political and civil equality, minority rights, religious freedom, and the legal separation of private and public domains. Drawing on her extensive fieldwork in Egypt with Coptic Orthodox Christians and Bahais—religious minorities in a predominantly Muslim country—Saba Mahmood shows how modern secular governance has exacerbated religious tensions and inequalities rather than reduced them. Tracing the historical career of secular legal concepts in the colonial and postcolonial Middle East, she explores how contradictions at the very heart of political secularism have aggravated and amplified existing forms of Islamic hierarchy, bringing minority relations in Egypt to a new historical impasse. Through a close examination of Egyptian court cases and constitutional debates about minority rights, conflicts around family law, and controversies over freedom of expression, Mahmood invites us to reflect on the entwined histories of secularism in the Middle East and Europe. A provocative work of scholarship, Religious Difference in a Secular Age challenges us to rethink the promise and limits of the secular ideal of religious equality.

The History and Religious Heritage of Old Cairo

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The History and Religious Heritage of Old Cairo by Gawdat Gabra Book Summary:

A celebration of the history of religious life in the early Egyptian capital, in text and pictures. Just to the south of modern Cairo stands the historic enclave known as Old Cairo, which grew up in and around the Roman fortress of Babylon, and which today hosts a unique collection of monuments that attest to the shared cultural heritage of ancient Egyptians, Christians, Jews, and Muslims. In this lavishly illustrated celebration of a very special place, renowned photographer SherifSonbol's remarkable images of the fortress, churches, synagogue, and mosque illuminate the living fabric of the ancient and medieval stones, while Gawdat Gabra describes the history of Old Cairo from the time of the ancient Egyptians and the Romans to the founding of the first Muslim city of al-Fustat. Stefan Reif focuses on the Jewish history of the area, exploring the famous Genizah documents found in the Ben Ezra Synagogue that tell so much about everyday life in medieval Egypt. Gertrud vanLoon looks at the early Coptic Christian churches, some of the oldest in the world, and Tarek Swelim describes the arrival of the Muslims in the seventh century, their establishment of al-Fustat on the edge of Old Cairo, and the building of the Mosque of 'Amr ibn al-'As, the oldest mosque in Africa.

Minority Rights Group International Report

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Minority Rights Group International Report by N.A Book Summary:

Download or read Minority Rights Group International Report book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Leatherwork from Qasr Ibrim (Egypt). Part I

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Leatherwork from Qasr Ibrim (Egypt). Part I by André J. Veldmeijer Book Summary:

Throughout its long history, stretching from the 25th Dynasty (c. 752-656 BC) to the Ottoman Period (c. 1500-1811 AD), Qasr Ibrim was one of the most important settlements in Egyptian Nubia. The site has produced an unprecedented wealth of material and due to the - even for Egypt - extraordinary preservation circumstances, includes objects that are made of perishable organic materials, such as wood, leather, and flax. The present volume focuses on one of these groups: footwear that is made from leather and dated to the Ottoman Period. The footwear, recovered during the years that the Egypt Exploration Society worked at the site, is described in detail, including a pictorial record consisting of photographs and drawings (both technical and artist's impressions). This is the first time that Ottoman footwear from Egypt (and outside of Egypt) has been analyzed in detail. The preliminary analysis focuses on footwear technology, within the framework of the Ancient Egyptian Footwear Project (AEFP; see A broader interpretation will be combined with the results of the analyses of the finds from the other epochs of Qasr Ibrim's history, such as the age of Christianity and the Meroitic Period.

The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity

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The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity by Ken Parry Book Summary:

"Consistently highly readable and engrossing. This is an excellent overview of Eastern Christianity."---Expository Times "A masterful description of the major living traditions of Eastern Christianity. Its 24 chapters, each written by an accomplished scholar in the field, address the dominant ethnic and cultural categories of Eastern Christianity (Arab, Byzantine, etc.) along with their most characteristic features (liturgy, iconography, and hagiography). Each offers a concise, well-organized, and highly readable overview of the tradition in question, along with a representative bibliography...Highly recommended."---Choice "Christian emigration, not least from the Middle East, means that there are growing communities of Eastern Christians in the West...Eastern Christians are now companions to Western; and the latter will learn much about the former from this Blackwell companion."---Church Times "A distinctive addition to the companion series and to its chosen sphere of knowledge."---Reference Reviews "A worthwhile collection, and one that should prove useful."---Ecclesiastical History Recent political events in the Middle East and Eastern Europe have brought Eastern Christianity to global attention. The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity provides an unparalleled account of the history and development of these vital Christian traditions, at the same time placing contemporary events in their full context. The companion provides authoritative and lively essays on the main Eastern Orthodox traditions, such as the Greek, Russian, and Georgian churches, as well as the Oriental Orthodox traditions, including the Armenian, Coptic, and Syrian churches. The in-depth articles, which are written by an international team of experts, offer a comprehensive survey of the history, theology, doctrine, worship, art, culture, and politics that make up the churches of Eastern Christianity. The companion can also be used alongside the respected Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity (1999), providing detailed discussions and assessments to complement the dictionary's shorter entries.

Arab Orthodox Christians Under the Ottomans 1516-1831

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Arab Orthodox Christians Under the Ottomans 1516-1831 by Constantin Alexandrovich Panchenko Book Summary:

Following the so called Arab Spring the world s attention has been drawn to the presence of significant minority religious groups within the predominantly Islamic Middle East. Of these minorities Christians are by far the largest, comprising over 10% of the population in Syria and as much as 40% in Lebanon.The largest single group of Christians are the Arabic-speaking Orthodox. The author draws on archaeological evidence and previously unpublished primary sources uncovered in Russian archives and Middle Eastern monastic libraries to present a vivid and compelling account of this vital but little-known spiritual and political culture, situating it within a complex network of relations reaching throughout the Mediterranean, the Caucasus and Eastern Europe."

Muslim Rebels

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Muslim Rebels by Jeffrey T. Kenney Book Summary:

The Kharijites were the first sectarian movement in Islamic history, a rebellious splinter group that separated itself from mainstream Muslim society and set about creating, through violence, an ideal community of the saved. Their influence in the political and theological life of the nascent faith has ensured their place in both critical and religious accounts of early Islamic history. Based on the image of sect fostered by the Islamic tradition, the name Kharijite defines a Muslim as an overly-pious zealot whose ideas and actions lie beyond the pale of normative Islam. After a brief look at Kharijite origins and the traditional image of these early rebels, this book focuses on references to the Kharijites in Egypt from the 1950s to the 1990s. Jeffrey T. Kenney shows how the traditional image of the Kharijites was reawakened to address the problem of radical Islamist opposition movements. The Kharijites came to play a central role in the rhetoric of both religious authorities, whose official role it is to interpret Islam for the masses, and the secular state, which cynically turns to Islamic ideas and symbols to defend its legitimacy. Even those Islamists who defend militant tactics, and who are themselves tainted by the Kharijite label, become participants in the discourse surrounding Kharijism. Although all Egyptians agree that modern Kharijites represent a dangerous threat to society, serious debates have arisen about the underlying social, political and economic problems that lead Muslims down this destructive path. Kenney examines these debates and what they reveal about Egyptian attitudes toward Islamist violence and its impact on their nation. Long before 9/11, Egyptians have been dealing with the problem of Islamist violence, frequently evoking the Kharijites. This book represents an important contribution to Islamic studies and Middle East studies, adding to our understanding of how the Islamic past shapes the present discourse surrounding Islamist violence in one Muslim society.

Modern Sons of the Pharaohs

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Modern Sons of the Pharaohs by Simon Henry Leeder Book Summary:

This interesting study of the Copts deserves attention. The Copts are the descendants of the ancient Egyptians, though many of them show a strain of Syrian or Jewish blood, and the Coptic church preserves in a somewhat debased form the primitive Christianity of the fourth century when it parted from Rome and Constantinople. Through the ages the Copts have preserved their faith and their customs; they form about a tenth of the population of Egypt and play a leading part in commerce. This study of the manners and customs of the Copts is notable for its comprehensive and scholarly handling of the subject, for grace of style and rich, descriptive backgrounds.

Culture and Customs of Egypt

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Culture and Customs of Egypt by Molefi Kete Asante Book Summary:

Examines Egyptian history, government, economy, religious rituals, literature, performing arts, fine arts, architecture, social customs, and lifestyles.

American Evangelicals in Egypt

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American Evangelicals in Egypt by Heather J. Sharkey Book Summary:

In 1854, American Presbyterian missionaries arrived in Egypt as part of a larger Anglo-American Protestant movement aiming for worldwide evangelization. Protected by British imperial power, and later by mounting American global influence, their enterprise flourished during the next century. American Evangelicals in Egypt follows the ongoing and often unexpected transformations initiated by missionary activities between the mid-nineteenth century and 1967--when the Six-Day Arab-Israeli War uprooted the Americans in Egypt. Heather Sharkey uses Arabic and English sources to shed light on the many facets of missionary encounters with Egyptians. These occurred through institutions, such as schools and hospitals, and through literacy programs and rural development projects that anticipated later efforts of NGOs. To Egyptian Muslims and Coptic Christians, missionaries presented new models for civic participation and for women's roles in collective worship and community life. At the same time, missionary efforts to convert Muslims and reform Copts stimulated new forms of Egyptian social activism and prompted nationalists to enact laws restricting missionary activities. Faced by Islamic strictures and customs regarding apostasy and conversion, and by expectations regarding the proper structure of Christian-Muslim relations, missionaries in Egypt set off debates about religious liberty that reverberate even today. Ultimately, the missionary experience in Egypt led to reconsiderations of mission policy and evangelism in ways that had long-term repercussions for the culture of American Protestantism.

Coptic Christology in Practice

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Coptic Christology in Practice by Stephen J. Davis Book Summary:

A pioneering study of ancient and medieval Christology. Employing a range of interdisciplinary methods, Stephen J. Davis shows how Christian identity in Egypt was shaped by a set of replicable 'christological practices'. He thus enables readers to trace the Coptic church's theological and cultural transition from late antiquity to Dar al-Islam.

From Byzantine to Islamic Egypt

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From Byzantine to Islamic Egypt by Maged S. A. Mikhail Book Summary:

The conquest of Egypt by Islamic armies under the command of Amr ibn al-As in the seventh century transformed medieval Egyptian society. Seeking to uncover the broader cultural changes of the period by drawing on a wide array of literary and documentary sources, Maged Mikhail stresses the cultural and institutional developments that punctuated the histories of Christians and Muslims in the province under early Islamic rule. From Byzantine to Islamic Egypt traces how the largely agrarian Egyptian society responded to the influx of Arabic and Islam, the means by which the Coptic Church constructed its sectarian identity, the Islamisation of the administrative classes and how these factors converged to create a new medieval society. The result is a fascinating and essential study for scholars of Byzantine and early Islamic Egypt.

Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire

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Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire by Benjamin Braude Book Summary:

How did the vast Ottoman empire, stretching from the Balkans to the Sahara, endure for more than four centuries despite its great ethnic and religious diversity? The classic work on this plural society, the two-volume Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, offered seminal reinterpretations of the empire¿s core institutions and has sparked more than a generation of innovative work since it was first published in 1982. This new, abridged, and reorganized edition, with a substantial new introduction and bibliography covering issues and scholarship of the past thirty years, has been carefully designed to be accessible to a wider readership.