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Climate A Very Short Introduction

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Climate: A Very Short Introduction

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Climate: A Very Short Introduction by Mark Maslin Book Summary:

In this Very Short Introduction, Mark Maslin looks at all aspects of climate, from the physical and chemical factors that drive it and how climate differs from weather, to how climate has affected human settlements and the cyclic features of it. He ends with a look at climate change and our current approaches to solving it.

Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction

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Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction by Mark Maslin Book Summary:

Global Warming is one of the most controversial scientific issues of the twenty first century. This book provides an informative, up-to-date, and readable book about the predicted impacts of global warming and the surprises that could be in store for us in the near future. - ;Global Warming is one of the most controversial scientific issues of the twenty-first century. This is a problem that has serious economic, sociological, geopolitical, political, and personal implications. This Very Short Introduction is an informative, up-to-date, and readable book about the predicted impacts of global warming and the surprises that could be in store for us in the near future. It unpacks the controversies that surround global warming, drawing on material from the recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a huge collaborative study drawing together current thinking on the subject from experts in a range of disciplines, and for the first time presents the findings of the Panel for a general readership. The book also discusses the politics of global warming, and looks at what we can do now to adapt to climate change and mitigate its worst effects. -

A Short Introduction to Climate Change

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A Short Introduction to Climate Change by Tony Eggleton,R. A. Eggleton Book Summary:

Provides a comprehensive, balanced and reader-friendly account of the developments in climate science over the past 250 years.

Global Warming

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Global Warming by Mark Maslin Book Summary:

Describes the evidence of global warming, its causes, its predicted impacts, and how its detrimental effects can be reduced.

Landscapes and Geomorphology: A Very Short Introduction

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Landscapes and Geomorphology: A Very Short Introduction by Andrew Goudie,Heather Viles Book Summary:

What were the landscapes of the past like? What will landscapes look like in the future? Landscapes are all around us, but most of us know very little about how they have developed, what goes on in them, and how they react to changing climates, tectonics and human activities. Examining what landscape is, and how we use a range of ideas and techniques to study it, Andrew Goudie and Heather Viles demonstrate how geomorphologists have built on classic methods pioneered by some great 19th century scientists to examine our Earth. Using examples from around the world, including New Zealand, the Tibetan Plateau, and the deserts of the Middle East, they examine some of the key controls on landscape today such as tectonics and climate, as well as humans and the living world. They also discuss some key 'landscape detectives' from the past, including Charles Darwin who did some important, but often overlooked, research on landscape. Concluding with the cultural importance of landscape, and exploring how this has led to the conservation of much 'earth heritage', they delve into the future and look at how we can predict the response of landscapes to climate change in the future. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Earth System Science

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Earth System Science by Tim Lenton Book Summary:

When humanity first glimpsed planet Earth from space, the unity of the system that supports humankind entered the popular consciousness. The concept of the Earth's atmosphere, biosphere, oceans, soil, and rocks operating as a closely interacting system has rapidly gained ground in science. This new field, involving geographers, geologists, biologists, oceanographers, and atmospheric physicists, is known as Earth System Science. In this Very Short Introduction, Tim Lenton considers how a world in which humans could evolve was created; how, as a species, we are now reshaping that world; and what a sustainable future for humanity within the Earth System might look like. Drawing on elements of geology, biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics, Lenton asks whether Earth System Science can help guide us onto a sustainable course before we alter the Earth system to the point where we destroy ourselves and our current civilisation. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Climate Change: a Very Short Introduction

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Climate Change: a Very Short Introduction by Mark Maslin Book Summary:

Climate change is perhaps the greatest challenge facing humanity. This book describes the substantial evidence for climate change and considers its potentially catastrophic impacts worldwide in the coming decades. It also discusses the geopolitical aspects, and explores what actions can be taken by individuals, companies, and governments.

Weather: a Very Short Introduction

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Weather: a Very Short Introduction by Storm Dunlop Book Summary:

From deciding the best day for a picnic, to the devastating effects of hurricanes and typhoons, the weather impacts our lives on a daily basis. Although new techniques allow us to forecast the weather with increasing accuracy, most people do not realize the vast global movements and forces which result in their day-to-day weather. In this Very Short Introduction, Storm Dunlop explains what weather is and how it differs from climate, discussing what causes weather, and how we measure it. Analyzing the basic features and properties of the atmosphere, he shows how these are directly related to the weather experienced on the ground, and to specific weather phenomena and extreme weather events. He describes how the global patterns of temperature and pressure give rise to the overall circulation within the atmosphere, the major wind systems, and the major oceanic currents, and how features such as mountains and the sea affect local weather. He also looks at examples of extreme and dangerous weather, such as of tropical cyclones (otherwise known as hurricanes and typhoons), describing how "Hurricane Hunters" undertake the dangerous task of flying through them. We measure weather in a number of ways: observations taken on the land and sea; observations within the atmosphere; and measurements from orbiting satellites. Dunlop concludes by looking at how these observations have been used to develop increasingly sophisticated long and short-range weather forecasting, including ensemble forecasting. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Environmental Economics: A Very Short Introduction

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Environmental Economics: A Very Short Introduction by Stephen Smith Book Summary:

If environmental protection is costly, how much should we spend on pollution control? Is it worth reducing pollution to zero, or should we accept some level of pollution because of the economic benefits associated with it? How can we assess the benefits that people get from a less-polluted atmosphere? In broad terms, environmental economics looks at how economic activity and policy affect the environment in which we live. Some production generates pollution, such as power station emissions causing acid rain and contributing to global warming, but household consumption decisions also affect the environment, where more consumption can mean more waste sent to polluting incinerators. However, pollution is not an inevitable consequence of economic activity - environmental policies can require polluting firms to clean up their emissions, and can encourage people to change their behaviour, through environmental taxes on polluting goods, for example. Generally, though, these measures will involve some costs, such as installing pollution control equipment. So there's a trade-off: a cleaner environment, but economic costs. In recent years, many economists have argued for greater use of incentive in the form of pollution charges and emissions trading rather than more traditional direct regulation of polluters. In this Very Short Introduction, Stephen Smith discusses environmental issues including pollution control, reducing environmental damage, and global climate change policies, answering questions about how we should balance environmental and economic considerations, and what form government policies should take. Including many illustrative case studies and examples he shows that this is an exciting field of economics, and one that is at the heart of many public debates and controversies. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Climate Analysis

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Climate Analysis by Chester F. Ropelewski,Phillip A. Arkin Book Summary:

Explains how climatologists have come to understand current climate variability and trends through analysis of observations, datasets and models.

The Atmosphere

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The Atmosphere by Paul Palmer Book Summary:

The atmosphere is the thin, diffuse fluid that envelops the Earth's surface. Despite its apparent fragility, the existence of this fluid is vital for human and other life on Earth. In this Very Short Introduction, Paul Palmer describes the physical and chemical characteristics of different layers in the atmosphere, and shows how the interactions where the atmosphere is in contact with land, ocean, and ice affect its observed physical and chemical properties. He also looks at how movement in the atmosphere, driven by heat from the sun, transports heat from lower latitudes to higher latitudes, and is a fundamental feature of the general circulation in the atmosphere. Finally, Palmer presents an overview of the types of measurements used to understand different parts of the atmosphere, and identifies the future challenges for atmospheric scientists. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Climate Justice

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Climate Justice by Dominic Roser,Christian Seidel Book Summary:

The link between justice and climate change is becoming increasingly prominent in public debates on climate policy. This clear and concise philosophical introduction to climate justice addresses the hot topic of climate change as a moral challenge. Using engaging everyday examples the authors address the core arguments by providing a comprehensive and balanced overview of this heated debate, enabling students and practitioners to think critically about the subject area and to promote discussion on questions such as: Why do anything in the face of climate change? How much do we owe our descendants – a better world, or nothing at all? How should we distribute the burden of climate action between industrialized and developing countries? Should I adopt a green lifestyle even if no one else makes an effort? Which means of reducing emissions are permissible? Should we put hope in technological solutions? Should we re-design democratic institutions for more effective climate policy? With chapter summaries, illustrative examples and suggestions for further reading, this book is an ideal introduction for students in political philosophy, applied ethics and environmental ethics, as well as for practitioners working on one of the most urgent issues of our time.

Climate Change

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Climate Change by Joseph J. Romm Book Summary:

"This book offers the most up-to-date examination of climate change's foundational science, implications for our future, and clean energy solutions that can mitigate its effects"--Back cover.

Anthropocene

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Anthropocene by Erle C. Ellis Book Summary:

Climate scientists, geologists, ecologists, and archaeologists recognize the profound effects of human activity on Earth, though whether and how this should be recognized as a formal geological epoch - the Anthropocene - remains under debate, Erle Ellis describes how the Anthropocene concept is affecting the sciences, humanities, and politics.

The Ice Age

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The Ice Age by Jamie Woodward Book Summary:

"In an era of warming climate, the study of the ice age past is now more important than ever. This book examines the wonders of the Quaternary ice age - to show how ice age landscapes and ecosystems were repeatedly and rapidly transformed as plants, animals, and humans reorganized their worlds." --Publisher.

Climate Change

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Climate Change by Gavin Schmidt,Joshua Wolfe Book Summary:

An unprecedented union of scientific analysis and stunning photography illustrating the effects of climate change on the global ecosystem.

Climate Dynamics

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Climate Dynamics by Kerry Cook Book Summary:

A concise introduction to climate system dynamics Climate Dynamics is an advanced undergraduate-level textbook that provides an essential foundation in the physical understanding of the earth's climate system. The book assumes no background in atmospheric or ocean sciences and is appropriate for any science or engineering student who has completed two semesters of calculus and one semester of calculus-based physics. Describing the climate system based on observations of the mean climate state and its variability, the first section of the book introduces the vocabulary of the field, the dependent variables that characterize the climate system, and the typical approaches taken to display these variables. The second section of the book gives a quantitative understanding of the processes that determine the climate state—radiation, heat balances, and the basics of fluid dynamics. Applications for the atmosphere, ocean, and hydrological cycle are developed in the next section, and the last three chapters of the book directly address global climate change. Throughout, the textbook makes connections between mathematics and physics in order to illustrate the usefulness of mathematics, particularly first-year calculus, for predicting changes in the physical world. Climate change will impact every aspect of life in the coming decades. This book supports and broadens understanding of the dynamics of the climate system by offering a much-needed introduction that is accessible to any science, math, or engineering student. Makes a physically based, quantitative understanding of climate change accessible to all science, engineering, and mathematics undergraduates Explains how the climate system works and why the climate is changing Reinforces, applies, and connects the basic ideas of calculus and physics Emphasizes fundamental observations and understanding An online illustration package and solutions manual for professors is available

Climate and the Oceans

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Climate and the Oceans by Geoffrey K. Vallis Book Summary:

Explores climate and oceans, providing a look at the basics of climate, a descriptive overview of the oceans, a brief introduction to dynamics, and coverage of other related topics.

Introduction to Energy and Climate

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Introduction to Energy and Climate by Julie Kerr Book Summary:

The purpose of this textbook is to provide a well-rounded working knowledge of both climate change and environmental sustainability for a wide range of students. Students will learn core concepts and methods to analyze energy and environmental impacts; will understand what is changing the earth’s climate, and what that means for life on earth now and in the future. They will also have a firm understanding of what energy is and how it can be used. This text intends to develop working knowledge of these topics, with both technical and social implications. Students will find in one volume the integration and careful treatment of climate, energy, and sustainability.

Field Notes from a Catastrophe

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Field Notes from a Catastrophe by Elizabeth Kolbert Book Summary:

A new edition of the book that launched Elizabeth Kolbert's career as an environmental writer-updated with three new chapters, making it, yet again, "irreplaceable" (Boston Globe). Elizabeth Kolbert's environmental classic Field Notes from a Catastrophe first developed out of a groundbreaking, National Magazine Award-winning three-part series in The New Yorker. She expanded it into a still-concise yet richly researched and damning book about climate change: a primer on the greatest challenge facing the world today. But in the years since, the story has continued to develop; the situation has become more dire, even as our understanding grows. Now, Kolbert returns to the defining book of her career. She has added a chapter bringing things up-to-date on the existing text, plus three new chapters--on ocean acidification, the tar sands, and a Danish town that's gone carbon neutral--making it, again, a must-read for our moment.

Climate Change Science

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Climate Change Science by National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Committee on the Science of Climate Change Book Summary:

The warming of the Earth has been the subject of intense debate and concern for many scientists, policy-makers, and citizens for at least the past decade. Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions, a new report by a committee of the National Research Council, characterizes the global warming trend over the last 100 years, and examines what may be in store for the 21st century and the extent to which warming may be attributable to human activity.

Waking the Giant

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Waking the Giant by Bill McGuire Book Summary:

Argues that the rapid climate change will provoke geophysical events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.

Jet Stream

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Jet Stream by Tim Woollings Book Summary:

A number of extreme weather events have struck the Northern Hemisphere in recent years, from scorching heatwaves to desperately cold winters, and from floods and storms to droughts and wildfires. These events have fuelled intense discussions in scientific conferences, government agencies, cafes, and on street corners around the world. Why are these events happening? Is this the emerging signal of climate change, and should we expect more of this? Media reports vary widely, but one mysterious agent has risen to prominence in many cases: the jet stream. The story begins on a windswept beach in Barbados, from where we follow the ascent of a weather balloon that will travel along the jet stream all around the world. From this viewpoint we observe the effect of the jet in influencing human life around the hemisphere, and witness startling changes emerging. What is the jet stream and how well do we understand it? How does it affect our weather and is it changing? These are the main questions tackled in this book. We learn about how our view of the wind has developed from Aristotle's early theories up to today's understanding. We see that the jet is intimately connected with dramatic contrasts between climate zones and has played a key historical role in determining patterns of trade. We learn about the basic physics underlying the jet and how this knowledge is incorporated into computer models which predict both tomorrow's weather and the climate of future decades. And finally, we discuss how climate change is expected to affect the jet, and introduce the vital scientific debate over whether these changes have contributed to recent extreme weather events.

The Earth: A Very Short Introduction

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The Earth: A Very Short Introduction by Martin Redfern Book Summary:

For generations, the ground beneath the feet of our ancestors seemed solid and unchanging. Around 30 years ago, two things happened that were to revolutionize the understanding of our home planet. First, geologists realized that the continents themselves were drifting across the surface of the globe and that oceans were being created and destroyed. Secondly, pictures of the entire planet were returned from space. As the astronomer Fred Hoyle had predicted, this 'let loose an idea as powerful as any in history'. Suddenly, the Earth began to be viewed as a single entity; a dynamic, interacting whole, controlled by complex processes we scarcely understood. It began to seem less solid. As one astronaut put it, 'a blue jewel on black velvet; small, fragile and touchingly alone'. Geologists at last were able to see the whole as well as the detail; the wood as well as the trees. This book brings their account up to date with the latest understanding of the processes that govern our planet. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Oxford Weather and Climate Since 1767

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Oxford Weather and Climate Since 1767 by Stephen Burt,Tim Burt Book Summary:

The British have always been obsessed by the weather. Thomas Hornsby, who founded the Radcliffe Observatory in Oxford in 1772, began weather observations at the site. They continue daily to this day, unbroken since 14 November 1813, the longest continuous series of single-site weather records in the British Isles, and one of the longest in the world. Oxford Weather and Climate since 1767 represents the first full publication of this newly-digitised record of English weather, which will appeal to interested readers and climate researchers alike. The book celebrates this unique and priceless Georgian legacy by describing and explaining how the records were (and still are) made, examines monthly and seasonal weather patterns across two centuries, and considers the context of long-term climate change. Local documentary sources and contemporary photographs bring the statistics to life, from the clouds of 'smoak' from the Great Fire of London in 1666 to the most recent floods. This book explores all the weather extremes, from bitter cold winters to hot, dry summers, bringing to life the painstaking measurements made over the last 250 years.

Short Circuiting Policy

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Short Circuiting Policy by Leah Cardamore Stokes Book Summary:

"Short Circuiting Policy examines clean energy policies to understand why US states are not on track to meet the climate crisis. After two decades of leadership, American states are slipping in their commitment to transitioning away from dirty fossil fuels towards cleaner energy sources, including wind and solar. I argue that organized combat between advocate and opponent interest groups is central to explaining why US states have stopped expanding and even started weakening their renewable energy policies. Fossil fuel companies and electric utilities played a key role in spreading climate denial. Now, they have turned to climate delay, working to block clean energy policies from passing or being implemented, and driving retrenchment. Clean energy advocates typically lack sufficient power to overcome electric utilities' opposition to climate policy. Short Circuiting Policy builds on policy feedback theory, showing the conditions under which retrenchment is more likely. Depending on their relative political influence, interest groups will work to drive retrenchment either directly by working with legislators, their staff and regulators; or, indirectly through the parties, the public and the courts. I also argue that policies likely effects are not easy to predict-an effect I term "the fog of enactment." But overtime, federated interest groups can learn to anticipate policies' consequences through networks that cross states-lines. Examining US energy policy over the past century, and Texas, Kansas, Arizona and Ohio's clean energy laws over the past two decades, I show how opponents have thwarted progress on climate policy"--

The Paris Agreement on Climate Change

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The Paris Agreement on Climate Change by Daniel Klein,Andrew Higham Book Summary:

The most important climate agreement in history, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change represents the commitment of the nations of the world to address and curb climate change. Signed in December 2015, it will come into force on the 4th November, and efforts toward fulfilling its ambitious goals are already under way. The Paris Climate Agreement: Commentary and Analysis combines a comprehensive legal appraisal and critique of the new Agreement with a practical and structured commentary to all its Articles. Part I discusses the general context for the Paris Agreement, detailing the scientific, political, and social drivers behind it, providing an overview of the pre-existing regime, and tracking the history of the negotiations. It examines the evolution of key concepts such as common but differentiated responsibilities, and analyses the legal form of the Agreement and the nature of its provisions. Part II comprises individual chapters on each Article of the Agreement, with detailed commentary of the provisions which highlights central aspects from the negotiating history and the legal nature of the obligations. It describes the institutional arrangements and considerations for national implementation, providing practical advice and prospects for future development. Part III reflects on the Paris Agreement as a whole: its strengths and weaknesses, its potential for further development, and its relationship with other areas of public international law and governance. The book is an invaluable resource for academics and practitioners, policy makers, and actors in the private sector and civil society, as they negotiate the implementation of the Agreement in domestic law and policy.

Applied Studies in Climate Adaptation

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Applied Studies in Climate Adaptation by Jean P. Palutikof,Sarah L. Boulter,Jon Barnett,David Rissik Book Summary:

The book advances knowledge about climate change adaptation practices through a series of case studies. It presents important evidence about adaptation practices in agriculture, businesses, the coastal zone, community services, disaster management, ecosystems, indigneous populations, and settlements and infrastructure. In addition to 38 case studies across these sectors, the book contains horizon-scoping essays from international experts in adaptation research, including Hallie Eakin, Susanne Moser, Jonathon Overpeck, Bill Solecki, and Gary Yohe. Australia’s social-ecological systems have a long history of adapting to climate variability and change, and in recent decades has been a world-leader in implementing and researching adaptation, making this book of universal relevance to all those working to adapt our environment and societies to climate change.

Natural Climate Variability and Global Warming

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Natural Climate Variability and Global Warming by Richard W. Battarbee,Heather A. Binney Book Summary:

Whilst there is now overwhelming evidence that greenhouse-gaspollution is becoming the dominant process responsible for globalwarming, it is also clear that the climate system varies quitenaturally on different time-scales. Predicting the course of futureclimate change consequently requires an understanding of thenatural variability of the climate system as well as the effects ofhuman-induced change. This book is concerned with our currentunderstanding of natural climate change, its variability on decadalto centennial time-scales, the extent to which climate models ofdifferent kinds simulate past variability, and the role of pastclimate variability in explaining changes to natural ecosystems andto human society over the later part of the Holocene. The bookhighlights the need to improve not only our understanding of thephysical system through time but also to improve our knowledge ofhow people may have influenced the climate system in the past andhave been influenced by it, both directly and indirectly. This ground-breaking text addresses predictable modification inthe climate system in the context of global warming. Ideal forresearchers and advanced students, it explores current thinking onnatural climate change. Addresses the natural variability of the climate system in thecontext of global warming Contributes substantially to the ongoing discussion on globalwarming Integrates state of the art research and brings togethermodeling and data communities in a balanced way Considers questions of climate change on differenttime-scales “Natural climate variability and global warming isclearly an important book, well-focused and distinctive, withfundamental things to say about Holocene science and its interfacewith the practical problem of global warming. It is anauthoritative, up-to-date summary and synthesis of currentknowledge in this area and is attractively produced with clear,colour illustrations throughout. It is a ‘must’ for alluniversity libraries and our private book collections.”The Holocene, 2009.

Climate Justice in a Non-Ideal World

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Climate Justice in a Non-Ideal World by Leverhulme Early Career Research Fellow Clare Heyward,Dominic Roser,Research Fellow in the Oxford Martin Programme on Human Rights for Future Generations Dominic Roser Book Summary:

Climate change is a pressing international political issue, for which a practical but principled solution is urgently required. Climate Justice in a Non-Ideal World aims to make normative theorising on climate justice more relevant and applicable to political realities and public policy. The motivation behind this edited collection is that normative theorising has something to offer even in an imperfect world mired by partial compliance and unfavourable circumstances. In the last years, a lively debate has sprung up in political philosophy about non-ideal theory and there has also been an upsurge of interest in the various normative issues raised by climate change such as intergenerational justice, transnational harm, collective action, or risk assessment. However, there has been little systematic discussion of the links between climate justice and non-ideal theory even though the former would seem like a paradigm example of the relevance of the latter. The aim of this edited volume is to address this. In doing so, the volume presents original work from leading experts on climate ethics, including several who have participated in climate policy. The first part of the book discusses those facets of the debate on climate justice that become relevant due to the shortcomings of current global action on climate change. The second part makes specific suggestions for adjusting current policies and negotiating procedures in ways that are feasible in the relatively short term while still decreasing the distance between current climate policy and the ideal. The chapters in the third and final part reflect upon how philosophical work can be brought to bear on the debates in climate science, communication, and politics.

Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate

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Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate by Han Dolman Book Summary:

Biogeochemical cycles play a fundamental role in the Earth's system - they describe the movement of matter and transfer of energy around the planet. This book explores changes in our current climate, as well as those in our geological past. It takes the view of the Earth as an integrated system and examines the impact of biogeochemical cycles on the climate and vice versa. How have the cycles of key nutrients, such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and waterchanged, both in the geological past and more recently through the impact of humans on the Earth System? How do these cycles interact with each other and the physical properties of climate? How can we usethis knowledge to mitigate some of the impacts of changing biogeochemistry on climate, and the Earth's habitability and resilience?This book is about these aspects of biogeochemical cycling and the Earth's climate. Understanding the exchange of materials and its relation to climate is important, in particular if these exchanges involve radiatively active trace gases (such as CO2, CH4 and N2O). These trace gases directly interact with the climate, through their absorptioncharacteristics in the infrared radiation domain.

A Temperate Empire

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A Temperate Empire by Anya Zilberstein Book Summary:

Controversy over the role of human activity in causing climate change is pervasive in contemporary society. But, as Anya Zilberstein shows in this work, debates about the politics and science of climate are nothing new. Indeed, they began as early as the settlement of English colonists in North America, well before the age of industrialization. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, many early Americans believed that human activity and population growth were essential to moderating the harsh extremes of cold and heat in the New World. In the preindustrial British settler colonies in particular, it was believed that the right kinds of people were agents of climate warming and that this was a positive and deliberate goal of industrious activity, rather than an unintended and lamentable side effect of development. A Temperate Empire explores the ways that colonists studied and tried to remake local climates in New England and Nova Scotia according to their plans for settlement and economic growth. For colonial officials, landowners, naturalists, and other elites, the frigid, long winters and short, muggy summers were persistent sources of anxiety. These early Americans became intensely interested in reimagining and reducing their vulnerability to the climate. Linking climate to race, they assured would-be migrants that hardy Europeans were already habituated to the severe northern weather and Caribbean migrants' temperaments would be improved by it. Even more, they drew on a widespread understanding of a reciprocal relationship between a mild climate and the prosperity of empire, promoting the notion that land cultivation and the expansion of colonial farms would increasingly moderate the climate. One eighteenth-century naturalist observed that European settlement and industry had already brought about a "more temperate, uniform, and equal" climate worldwide-a forecast of a permanent, global warming that was wholeheartedly welcomed. Illuminating scientific arguments that once celebrated the impact of economic activities on environmental change, A Temperate Empire showcases an imperial, colonial, and early American history of climate change.

The Hartwell Approach to Climate Policy

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The Hartwell Approach to Climate Policy by Steve Rayner,Mark Caine Book Summary:

The Hartwell Approach to Climate Policy presents a powerful critique of mainstream climate change policies and details a set of pragmatic alternatives based on the Hartwell Group’s collective writings from 1988-2010. Drawing on a rich history of heterodox but increasingly accepted views on climate change policy, this book brings together in a single volume a series of key, related texts that define the ‘Hartwell critique’ of conventional climate change policies and the ‘Hartwell approach’ to building more inclusive, pragmatic alternatives. This book tells of the story of how and why conventional climate policy has failed and, drawing from lessons learned, how it can be renovated. It does so by weaving together three strands of analysis. First, it highlights why the mainstream approach, as embodied by the Kyoto Protocol, has failed to produce real world reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and delayed real meaningful progress on climate change. Second, it explores the underlying political, economic, and technological factors which form the boundary conditions for climate change policy but which are often ignored by policy makers and advocates. Finally, it lays out a novel approach to climate change guided centrally by the goal of uplifting human dignity worldwide—and the recognition that this can only succeed if pursued pragmatically, economically, and with democratic legitimacy. With contributions from leading scholars in the field, this work presents a original critique of climate policy and a constructive primer for how to improve it.

What We Know about Climate Change

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What We Know about Climate Change by Kerry Emanuel Book Summary:

An updated edition of a guide to the basic science of climate change, and a call to action. The vast majority of scientists agree that human activity has significantly increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere—most dramatically since the 1970s. Yet global warming skeptics and ill-informed elected officials continue to dismiss this broad scientific consensus. In this updated edition of his authoritative book, MIT atmospheric scientist Kerry Emanuel outlines the basic science of global warming and how the current consensus has emerged. Although it is impossible to predict exactly when the most dramatic effects of global warming will be felt, he argues, we can be confident that we face real dangers. Emanuel warns that global warming will contribute to an increase in the intensity and power of hurricanes and flooding and more rapidly advancing deserts. But just as our actions have created the looming crisis, so too might they avert it. Emanuel calls for urgent action to reduce greenhouse gases and criticizes the media for downplaying the dangers of global warming (and, in search of “balance,” quoting extremists who deny its existence). This edition has been updated to include the latest climate data, a discussion of the earth's carbon cycle, the warming hiatus of the first decade of this century, the 2017 hurricanes, advanced energy options, the withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement, and more. It offers a new foreword by former U.S. Representative Bob Inglis (R-SC), who now works on climate action through his organization RepublicEN.

The Economics of Climate Change

Climate A Very Short Introduction [Pdf/ePub] eBook

The Economics of Climate Change by Nicholas Stern,Nicholas Herbert Stern,Great Britain. Treasury Book Summary:

Independent, rigorous and comprehensive analysis of the economic aspects of climate change.

Managing Ocean Environments in a Changing Climate

Climate A Very Short Introduction [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Managing Ocean Environments in a Changing Climate by Kevin J. Noone,Ussif Rashid Sumaila,Robert J. Diaz Book Summary:

Managing Ocean Environments in a Changing Climate summarizes the current state of several threats to the global oceans. What distinguishes this book most from previous works is that this book begins with a holistic, global-scale focus for the first several chapters and then provides an example of how this approach can be applied on a regional scale, for the Pacific region. Previous works usually have compiled local studies, which are essentially impossible to properly integrate to the global scale. The editors have engaged leading scientists in a number of areas, such as fisheries and marine ecosystems, ocean chemistry, marine biogeochemical cycling, oceans and climate change, and economics, to examine the threats to the oceans both individually and collectively, provide gross estimates of the economic and societal impacts of these threats, and deliver high-level recommendations. Nominated for a Katerva Award in 2012 in the Economy category State of the science reviews by known marine experts provide a concise, readable presentation written at a level for managers and students Links environmental and economic aspects of ocean threats and provides an economic analysis of action versus inaction Provides recommendations for stakeholders to help stimulate the development of policies that would help move toward sustainable use of marine resources and services

Communicating Climate Change

Climate A Very Short Introduction [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Communicating Climate Change by Anne K. Armstrong,Marianne E. Krasny,Jonathon P. Schuldt Book Summary:

Environmental educators face a formidable challenge when they approach climate change due to the complexity of the science and of the political and cultural contexts in which people live. There is a clear consensus among climate scientists that climate change is already occurring as a result of human activities, but high levels of climate change awareness and growing levels of concern have not translated into meaningful action. Communicating Climate Change provides environmental educators with an understanding of how their audiences engage with climate change information as well as with concrete, empirically tested communication tools they can use to enhance their climate change program. Starting with the basics of climate science and climate change public opinion, Armstrong, Krasny, and Schuldt synthesize research from environmental psychology and climate change communication, weaving in examples of environmental education applications throughout this practical book. Each chapter covers a separate topic, from how environmental psychology explains the complex ways in which people interact with climate change information to communication strategies with a focus on framing, metaphors, and messengers. This broad set of topics will aid educators in formulating program language for their classrooms at all levels. Communicating Climate Change uses fictional vignettes of climate change education programs and true stories from climate change educators working in the field to illustrate the possibilities of applying research to practice. Armstrong et al, ably demonstrate that environmental education is an important player in fostering positive climate change dialogue and subsequent climate change action. An open access version of this book is available through Cornell Open.

The Economics and Politics of Climate Change

Climate A Very Short Introduction [Pdf/ePub] eBook

The Economics and Politics of Climate Change by Dieter Helm Book Summary:

The volume brings together leading climate change policy experts to set out the economic analysis and the nature of the negotiations at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen and beyond.

Environmental Law: a Very Short Introduction

Climate A Very Short Introduction [Pdf/ePub] eBook

Environmental Law: a Very Short Introduction by Elizabeth Fisher Book Summary:

Environmental law is the law concerned with environmental problems. It is a vast area of law that operates from the local to the global, involving a range of different legal and regulatory techniques. In theory, environmental protection is a no brainer. Few people would actively argue forpollution or environmental destruction. Ensuring a clean environment is ethically desirable, and also sensible from a purely self-interested perspective. Yet, in practice, environmental law is a messy and complex business fraught with conflict. Whilst environmental law is often characterized inoverly simplistic terms, with a law being seen as be a magic wand that solves an environmental problem, the reality is that creating and maintaining a body of laws to address and avoid problems is not easy, and involves legislators, courts, regulators and communities. This Very Short Introduction provides an overview of the main features of environmental law, and discusses how environmental law deals with multiple interests, socio-political conflicts, and the limits of knowledge about the environment. Showing how interdependent societies across the world havedeveloped robust and legitimate bodies of law to address environmental problems, Elizabeth Fisher discusses some of the major issues involved in environmental law's: nation statehood, power, the reframing role of law, the need to ensure real environmental improvements, and environmental justice. AsFisher explains, environmental law is, and will always be, necessary but inherently controversial. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.