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Assertion On The Philosophical Significance Of Assertoric Speech

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Assertion

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Assertion by Sanford Goldberg Book Summary:

Sanford C. Goldberg presents a novel account of the speech act of assertion. He defends the view that this type of speech act is answerable to a constitutive norm--the norm of assertion. This hypothesis is uniquely suited to explain assertion's philosophical significance--its connections to other philosophically interesting topics, including epistemology, the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of language, ethics, and other matters which transcend any subcategory.Goldberg aims to bring out these connections without assuming anything about the precise content of assertion's norm, beyond regarding it as robustly epistemic. In the last section of the book,however, he proposes that we do best to see the norm's epistemic standard as set in a context-sensitive fashion--a view that can be made to square with assertion's philosophical significance.

The Oxford Handbook of Assertion

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The Oxford Handbook of Assertion by Sanford C. Goldberg Book Summary:

Assertions belong to the family of speech acts that make claims regarding how things are. They include statements, avowals, reports, expressed judgments, and testimonies - acts which are relevant across a host of issues not only in philosophy of language and linguistics but also in subdisciplines such as epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of mind, ethics, and social and political philosophy. Over the past two decades, the amount of scholarship investigating the speech act of assertion has increased dramatically, and the scope of such research has also grown. The Oxford Handbook of Assertion explores various dimensions of the act of assertion: its nature; its place in a theory of speech acts, and in semantics and meta-semantics; its role in epistemology; and the various social, political, and ethical dimensions of the act. Essays from leading theorists situate assertion in relation to other types of speech acts, exploring the connection between assertions and other phenomena of interest not only to philosophers but also to linguists, psychologists, anthropologists, lawyers, computer scientists, and theorists from communication studies.

To the Best of Our Knowledge

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To the Best of Our Knowledge by Sanford C. Goldberg Book Summary:

Sanford C. Goldberg argues in this volume that epistemic normativity - the sort of normativity implicated in assessments of whether a belief amounts to knowledge - is grounded in the things we properly expect of one another as epistemic subjects. In developing this claim Goldberg argues that epistemic norms and standards themselves are generated by the expectations that arise out of our profound and ineliminable dependence on one another for what we know of the world. The expectations in question are those through which we hold each other accountable to standards of both (epistemic) reliability and (epistemic) responsibility. In arguing for this Goldberg aims to honor the insights of both internalist and externalist approaches to epistemic justification. The resulting theory has far-reaching implications not only for the theory of epistemic normativity, but also for the nature of epistemic assessment itself, as well as for our understanding of epistemic defeat, epistemic justification, epistemic responsibility, and the various social dimensions of knowledge.

Externalism, Self-Knowledge, and Skepticism

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Externalism, Self-Knowledge, and Skepticism by Sanford C. Goldberg Book Summary:

Written by an international team of leading scholars, this collection of thirteen new essays explores the implications of semantic externalism for self-knowledge and scepticism, bringing recent developments in the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of language, and epistemology, to bear on the issue. Structured in three parts, the collection looks at self-knowledge, content transparency, and then meta-semantics and the nature of mental content. The essays examine a wide range of topics in the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of language, including 2D semantics, transparency views of self-knowledge, and theories of linguistic understanding, as well as epistemological debates on contextualism, contrastivism, pragmatic encroachment, anti-luminosity arguments and testimony. The scope of the volume will appeal to graduate students and researchers in epistemology, philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, cognitive science, psychology and linguistics.

The Norms of Assertion

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The Norms of Assertion by R. McKinnon Book Summary:

When we make claims to each other, we're asserting. But what does it take to assert well? Do we need to know what we're talking about? This book argues that we don't. In fact, it argues that in some special contexts, we can lie.

Conversational Pressure

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Conversational Pressure by Sanford C. Goldberg Book Summary:

In the course of conversation, we exert implicit pressures on both ourselves and others. These forms of conversational pressure are many and far from uniform, so much so that it is unclear whether they constitute a single cohesive class. In this book Sanford C. Goldberg explores the source, nature, and scope of the normative expectations we have of one another as we engage in conversation that are generated by the performance of speech acts themselves. In doing so he examines two fundamental types of expectation -- epistemic and interpersonal. It is through normative expectations of these types that we aim to hold one another to standards of proper conversational conduct. This line of argument is pursued in connection with such topics as the normative significance of acts of address, the epistemic costs of politeness, the bearing of epistemic injustice on the epistemology of testimony, the normative pressure friendship exerts on belief, the nature of epistemic trust, the significance of conversational silence, and the various evils of silencing. By approaching these matters in terms of the normative expectations to which conversational participants are entitled, Goldberg aims to offer a unified account of the various pressures that are exerted in the course of a speech exchange.

Assertion

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Assertion by Jessica Brown,Herman Cappelen Book Summary:

Assertion is a fundamental feature of language. This volume will be the place to look for anyone interested in current work on the topic. Philosophers of language and epistemologists join forces to elucidate what kind of speech act assertion is, particularly in light of relativist views of truth, and how assertion is governed by epistemic norms.

The Logical Must

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The Logical Must by Penelope Maddy Book Summary:

"Maddy's short monograph looks at Wittgenstein's philosophy of logic, from the perspective of the form of naturalism that she calls "second philosophy." That view takes an empirical approach to logical truth -- essentially arguing that if philosophers want to understand the world, they should start from a position informed by scientific understandings of the world, because science is often a reliable guide to how the world works. Similarly, just like science, logic is also grounded in the structure of our world, and our basic cognitive machinery is tuned by evolutionary pressures to detect that structure where it occurs. Ludwig Wittgenstein (particularly in the "Tractatus") also linked the logical structure of representation with the structure of the world, but still insisted that the sense of our representations must be given prior to -- independently of -- any facts about how the world happens to be. When that requirement is removed, Wittgenstein's position in the Tractatus approaches Maddy's Second Philosophy -- that logic is grounded in the structure of the world and our representational systems reflect that structuring. The later Wittgenstein also hews closely to Second Philosophy, holding that our logical practices are grounded in our interests and motivations, and our natural inclinations, and the features of the world. In this sense, logic is no different from other descriptions of the world -- just more general and responding to features so basic and ubiquitous that they tend to go unnoticed. Maddy's Second Philosophy finds Wittgenstein as an important precursor and kindred spirit, and promotes a new view of him as a naturalistic phliosopher"--

Relying on Others

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Relying on Others by Sanford C. Goldberg Book Summary:

Sanford Goldberg investigates the role that others play in our attempts to acquire knowledge of the world. Two main forms of this reliance are examined: testimony cases, where a subject aims to acquire knowledge through accepting what another tells her; and cases involving "coverage", where a subject aims to acquire knowledge of something by reasoning that if things were not so she would have heard about it by now. Goldberg argues that these cases challenge some cherished assumptions in epistemology. Testimony cases challenge the assumption, prominent in reliabilist epistemology, that the processes through which beliefs are formed never extend beyond the boundaries of the individual believer. And both sorts of case challenge the idea that, insofar knowledge is a cognitive achievement, it is an achievement that belongs to the knowing subject herself. Goldberg uses results of this sort to question the broadly individualistic orthodoxy within reliabilist epistemology, and to explore what a non-orthodox reliabilist epistemology would look like. The resulting theory is a social-reliabilist epistemology — one that results from the application of reliabilist criteria to situations in which belief-fixation involves epistemic reliance on others. Sanford Goldberg presents an important contribution both to the reliability literature in general epistemology and to the social epistemology of testimony and related topics.

Semantic Singularities

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Semantic Singularities by Keith Simmons Book Summary:

This book aims to provide a solution to the semantic paradoxes. It argues for a unified solution to the paradoxes generated by our concepts of denotation, predicate extension, and truth. The solution makes two main claims. The first is that our semantic expressions 'denotes', 'extension' and 'true' are context-sensitive. The second, inspired by a brief, tantalizing remark of Godel's, is that these expressions are significant everywhere except for certain singularities, in analogy with division by zero. A formal theory of singularities is presented and applied to a wide variety of versions of the definability paradoxes, Russell's paradox, and the Liar paradox. Keith Simmons argues that the singularity theory satisfies the following desiderata: it recognizes that the proper setting of the semantic paradoxes is natural language, not regimented formal languages; it minimizes any revision to our semantic concepts; it respects as far as possible Tarski's intuition that natural languages are universal; it responds adequately to the threat of revenge paradoxes; and it preserves classical logic and semantics. Simmons draws out the consequences of the singularity theory for deflationary views of our semantic concepts, and concludes that if we accept the singularity theory, we must reject deflationism.

Essays on Linguistic Context-sensitivity and Its Philosophical Significance

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Essays on Linguistic Context-sensitivity and Its Philosophical Significance by Steven Gross Book Summary:

Drawing upon research in philosophical logic, linguistics and cognitive science, this study explores how our ability to use and understand language depends upon our capacity to keep track of complex features of the contexts in which we converse.

Medical Nihilism

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Medical Nihilism by Jacob Stegenga Book Summary:

"Medical nihilism is the view that we should have little confidence in the effectiveness of medical interventions. This book argues that medical nihilism is a compelling view of modern medicine. If we consider the frequency of failed medical interventions, the extent of misleading evidence in medical research, the thin theoretical basis of many interventions, and the malleability of empirical methods in medicine, and if we employ our best inductive framework, then our confidence in the effectiveness of medical interventions ought to be low" --

Philosophy in Classical India

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Philosophy in Classical India by Jonardon Ganeri Book Summary:

This original work focuses on the rational principles of Indian philosophical theory, rather than the mysticism more usually associated with it. Ganeri explores the philosophical projects of a number of major Indian philosophers and looks into the methods of rational inquiry deployed within these projects. In so doing, he illuminates a network of mutual reference, criticism, influence and response, in which reason is used to call itself into question. This fresh perspective on classical Indian thought unravels new philosophical paradigms, and points towards new applications for the concept of reason.

Interpreting Arnauld

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Interpreting Arnauld by Elmar J. Kremer Book Summary:

"Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694) was an influential theologian and philosopher widely known as the leader of the seventeenth-century Jansenist movement and as the author of the Fourth Objections to Descartes's Meditations. This collection of essays examines the relationship between philosophy and theology in Arnauld's thought, as well as his contribution to the development of Cartesianism and his role in the continuation of medieval disputes in the seventeenth century." "What emerges in the essays is the essential unity of Arnauld's thought. Arnauld is revealed in the volume as a figure who wanted to embrace the new philosophy while remaining loyal to the medieval theological tradition. His attempt to defend this position and his considerable skill at logical analysis are discussed throughout. The essays deal with such topics as Arnauld's attitude towards the Cartesian doctrine of the creation of the eternal truths and his views on miracles, theodicy, and the compatibility of grace and free will." "This volume makes an important contribution to the history of seventeenth-century philosophy, theology, and the history of ideas."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Frege, Logical Excavations

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Frege, Logical Excavations by Gordon P. Baker,Gordon Philip Baker,Peter Michael Stephan Hacker Book Summary:

Download or read Frege, Logical Excavations book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Epistemology After Sextus Empiricus

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Epistemology After Sextus Empiricus by Katja Maria Vogt,Justin Vlasits Book Summary:

"Pyrrhonian skepticism is defined by its commitment to inquiry. The Greek work skepsis means inquiry -- not doubt, or whatever else later forms of skepticism took to be at the core of skeptical philosophy. Sextus Empiricus's writings offer the most sophisticated and detailed version of ancient skepticism in the Pyrrhonian tradition. According to Sextus, skeptics neither claim to 'know nothing' nor hold knowledge to be unattainable. Instead they continue to investigate (Outlines of Pyrrhonism 1.1-4). Being a skeptic, unlike, say, a Stoic or a Platonist, is not a matter of holding a certain view. It is to engage in ongoing inquiry of a certain sort. This makes Pyrrhonism an enigmatic presence in the history of philosophy. It offers no theories to interpret, no proofs in any ordinary sense to excavate. Pyrrhonism is self-consciously open ended, foreseeing epicycles of objections and replies, arguments and counterarguments in perpetuity. Just as enigmatic is its voice for posterity, Sextus Empiricus (fl. 2nd century CE). While a large quantity of his works survives, assessing his place in the history of philosophy and his relevance for contemporary philosophy is challenging, for it is often difficult to decipher where his sources end and he begins. This volume investigates epistemology after Sextus, both ways in which he has influenced the history of philosophy and ways in which he and the Pyrrhonian tradition he represents ought to contribute to contemporary debates. We aim to (re-)instate Sextus as an important philosopher in these discussions in much the same way that Aristotle has been brought into discussions in contemporary ethics, action theory, and metaphysics"--

Second Philosophy:A Naturalistic Method

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Second Philosophy:A Naturalistic Method by Penelope Maddy Book Summary:

Many philosophers these days consider themselves naturalists, but it's doubtful any two of them intend the same position by the term. In this book, Penelope Maddy describes and practises a particularly austere form of naturalism called 'Second Philosophy'. Without a definitive criterion for what counts as 'science' and what doesn't, Second Philosophy can't be specified directly - 'trust only the methods of science!' or some such thing - so Maddy proceeds instead by illustratingthe behaviours of an idealized inquirer she calls the 'Second Philosopher'. This Second Philosopher begins from perceptual common sense and progresses from there to systematic observation, active experimentation, theory formation and testing, working all the while to assess, correct and improve hermethods as she goes. Second Philosophy is then the result of the Second Philosopher's investigations.Maddy delineates the Second Philosopher's approach by tracing her reactions to various familiar skeptical and transcendental views (Descartes, Kant, Carnap, late Putnam, van Fraassen), comparing her methods to those of other self-described naturalists (especially Quine), and examining a prominent contemporary debate (between disquotationalists and correspondence theorists in the theory of truth) to extract a properly second-philosophical line of thought. She then undertakes to practise SecondPhilosophy in her reflections on the ground of logical truth, the methodology, ontology and epistemology of mathematics, and the general prospects for metaphysics naturalized.

Wittgenstein and Ethical Inquiry

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Wittgenstein and Ethical Inquiry by Jeremy Wisnewski Book Summary:

Argues that Wittgenstein, though himself often silent on particular ethical matters, gives us immense resources for understanding the aims appropriate to any philosophical ethics. This work re-examines some of the landmarks in the history of moral philosophy in order to cast contemporary ethical philosophy in a fresh light.

International Philosophical Quarterly

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International Philosophical Quarterly by N.A Book Summary:

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Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning

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Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning by William P. Alston Book Summary:

What is it for a sentence to have a certain meaning? This is the question that William P. Alston, one of America's most distinguished and prolific analytic philosophers, addresses in this major contribution to the philosophy of language. His answer focuses on the given sentence's potential to play the role that its speaker had in mind—what he terms the usability of the sentence to perform the illocutionary act intended by its speaker. Alston defines an illocutionary act as an act of saying something with a certain "content." He develops his account of what it is to perform such acts in terms of taking responsibility, in uttering a sentence, for the existence of certain conditions. In requesting someone to open a window, for example, the speaker takes responsibility for its being the case that the window is closed and that the speaker has an interest in its being opened. In Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning, Alston expands upon this concept, creating a framework of five categories of illocutionary act and going on to argue that sentence meaning is fundamentally a matter of illocutionary act potential; that is, for a sentence to have a particular meaning is for it to be usable to perform illocutionary acts of a certain type. In providing detailed and explicit patterns of analysis for the whole range of illocutionary acts, Alston makes a unique contribution to the field of philosophy of language—one that is likely to generate debate for years to come.

World Philosophy

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World Philosophy by Ian Philip McGreal Book Summary:

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Anti-Individualism

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Anti-Individualism by Sanford C. Goldberg Book Summary:

Sanford Goldberg argues that a proper account of the communication of knowledge through speech has anti-individualistic implications for both epistemology and the philosophy of mind and language. In Part 1 he offers a novel argument for anti-individualism about mind and language, the view that the contents of one's thoughts and the meanings of one's words depend for their individuation on one's social and natural environment. In Part 2 he discusses the epistemic dimension of knowledge communication, arguing that the epistemic characteristics of communication-based beliefs depend on features of the cognitive and linguistic acts of the subject's social peers. In acknowledging an ineliminable social dimension to mind, language, and the epistemic categories of knowledge, justification, and rationality, his book develops fundamental links between externalism in the philosophy of mind and language, on the one hand, and externalism is epistemology, on the other.

The Epistemology of Testimony

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The Epistemology of Testimony by Jennifer Lackey,Ernest Sosa Book Summary:

Testimony is a critical source of knowledge. This volume collects 12 essays on the topic. The contributors cover topics such as the epistemic role of testimony, liberal fundamentalism and its rivals, testimony and trustworthiness, testimony and epistemic autonomy, and many more.

The Logic of Being

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The Logic of Being by Simo Knuuttila,Jaakko Hintikka Book Summary:

The last twenty years have seen remarkable developments in our understanding of how the ancient Greek thinkers handled the general concept of being and its several varieties. The most general examination of the meaning of the Greek verb 'esti'/'einai'/'on' both in common usage and in the philosophical literature has been presented by Charles H. Kahn, most extensively in his 1973 book The Verb 'Be' in Ancient Greek. These discussions are summarized in Kahn's contribution to this volume. By and large, they show that conceptual schemes by means of which philosophers have recently approached Greek thought have not been very well suited to the way the concept of being was actually used by the ancients. For one thing, being in the sense of existence played a very small role in Greek thinking according to Kahn. Even more importantly, Kahn has argued that Frege and Russell's thesis that verbs for being, such as 'esti', are multiply ambiguous is ill suited for the purpose of appreciating the actual conceptual assumptions of the Greek thinkers. Frege and Russell claimed that a verb like 'is' or'esti' is ambiguous between the 'is' of identity, the 'is' of existence, the copulative 'is', and the generic 'is' (the 'is' of class-inclusion). At least a couple of generations of scholars have relied on this thesis and fre quently criticized sundry ancients for confusing these different senses of 'esti' with each other.

Adult Education @ 21st Century

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Adult Education @ 21st Century by Peter Kell,Sue Shore,Michael Singh Book Summary:

Adult Education @ 21st Century tackles tough questions concerning how to respond to and engage with transnational education markets and multicultural diversity in a global environment typified by disorienting changes and continuities. Researchers from different countries demonstrate various ways in which the teachers of adults mediate and mitigate the oppressive consequences of the contemporary transition to globalization and the resentment and alienation to which it gives rise. Based on analyses of their work, the contributors argue that teachers and policy makers involved in adult education are significant agents of innovation. From Germany and Norway, across Malaysia and Australia to Canada, the contributors to this book are engaging in transformative projects that are informed by globally oriented thinking and actions aimed at enhancing local viability.

A Theory of Linguistic Force and Its Application to Language in Poetry

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A Theory of Linguistic Force and Its Application to Language in Poetry by Diana Elna Axelsen Book Summary:

Download or read A Theory of Linguistic Force and Its Application to Language in Poetry book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Practical Implication: Some Problems in the Logic of Assertion

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Practical Implication: Some Problems in the Logic of Assertion by Sue Howard Larson Book Summary:

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Knowledge First

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Knowledge First by J. Adam Carter,Emma C. Gordon,Benjamin W. Jarvis Book Summary:

"Knowledge-First" constitutes what is widely regarded as one of the most significant innovations in contemporary epistemology in the past 25 years. Knowledge-first epistemology is the idea that knowledge per se should not be analysed in terms of its constituent parts (e.g., justification,belief), but rather that these and other notions should be analysed in terms of the concept of knowledge. This volume features a substantive introduction and 13 original essays from leading and up-and-coming philosophers on the topic of knowledge-first philosophy. The contributors' essays range fromfoundational issues to applications of this project to other disciplines including the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of perception, ethics and action theory.Knowledge First: Approaches in Epistemology and Mind aims to provide a relatively open-ended forum for creative and original scholarship with the potential to contribute and advance debates connected with this philosophical project.

The Twin Earth Chronicles

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The Twin Earth Chronicles by Andrew Pessin,Sanford Goldberg Book Summary:

In 1975, Putnam published a paper called The Meaning of 'Meaning', which challenged the orthodox view in the philosophies of language and mind. The article's Twin Earth conclusions about meaning, thought and knowledge were shocking. This work contains writings on the subject of Twin Earth.

Assessment Sensitivity

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Assessment Sensitivity by John MacFarlane Book Summary:

John MacFarlane explores how we might make sense of the idea that truth is relative. He provides new, satisfying accounts of parts of our thought and talk that have resisted traditional methods of analysis, including what we mean when we talk about what is tasty, what we know, what will happen, what might be the case, and what we ought to do.

Foundations for Moral Relativism

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Foundations for Moral Relativism by J. David Velleman Book Summary:

In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. David Velleman shows that different communities can indeed be subject to incompatible moralities, because their local mores are rationally binding. At the same time, he explains why the mores of different communities, even when incompatible, are still variations on the same moral themes. The book thus maps out a universe of many moral worlds without, as Velleman puts it, "moral black holes”. The six self-standing chapters discuss such diverse topics as online avatars and virtual worlds, lying in Russian and truth-telling in Quechua, the pleasure of solitude and the fear of absurdity. Accessibly written, this book presupposes no prior training in philosophy.

Aboutness

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Aboutness by Stephen Yablo Book Summary:

Aboutness has been studied from any number of angles. Brentano made it the defining feature of the mental. Phenomenologists try to pin down the aboutness-features of particular mental states. Materialists sometimes claim to have grounded aboutness in natural regularities. Attempts have even been made, in library science and information theory, to operationalize the notion. But it has played no real role in philosophical semantics. This is surprising; sentences have aboutness-properties if anything does. Aboutness is the first book to examine through a philosophical lens the role of subject matter in meaning. A long-standing tradition sees meaning as truth-conditions, to be specified by listing the scenarios in which a sentence is true. Nothing is said about the principle of selection--about what in a scenario gets it onto the list. Subject matter is the missing link here. A sentence is true because of how matters stand where its subject matter is concerned. Stephen Yablo maintains that this is not just a feature of subject matter, but its essence. One indicates what a sentence is about by mapping out logical space according to its changing ways of being true or false. The notion of content that results--directed content--is brought to bear on a range of philosophical topics, including ontology, verisimilitude, knowledge, loose talk, assertive content, and philosophical methodology. Written by one of today's leading philosophers, Aboutness represents a major advance in semantics and the philosophy of language.

From Utterances to Speech Acts

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From Utterances to Speech Acts by Mikhail Kissine Book Summary:

Most of the time our utterances are automatically interpreted as speech acts: as assertions, conjectures and testimonies; as orders, requests and pleas; as threats, offers and promises. Surprisingly, the cognitive correlates of this essential component of human communication have received little attention. This book fills the gap by providing a model of the psychological processes involved in interpreting and understanding speech acts. The theory is framed in naturalistic terms and is supported by data on language development and on autism spectrum disorders. Mikhail Kissine does not presuppose any specific background and addresses a crucial pragmatic phenomenon from an interdisciplinary perspective. This is a valuable resource for academic researchers and graduate and undergraduate students in pragmatics, semantics, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics and philosophy of language.

On the Semantics of Propositional Attitude Reports

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On the Semantics of Propositional Attitude Reports by Mats Dahllöf Book Summary:

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Resisting Reality

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Resisting Reality by Sally Haslanger,Sally Anne Haslanger Book Summary:

In this collection of previously published essays, Sally Haslanger draws on insights from feminist and critical race theory and on the resources of contemporary analytic philosophy to develop the idea that gender and race are positions within a structure of social relations. Explicating the workings of these interlocking structures provides tools for understanding and combatting social injustice.

New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind

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New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind by Noam Chomsky,Institute Professor & Professor of Linguistics (Emeritus) Noam Chomsky Book Summary:

Outstanding and unique contribution to the philosophical study of language and mind by Noam Chomsky.

Pragmatics of Speech Actions

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Pragmatics of Speech Actions by Marina Sbisà,Ken Turner Book Summary:

This volume provides extensive critical information about current discussions in the study of speech actions. Its central reference point is classic speech act theory, but attention is also paid to nonstandard developments and other approaches that study speech as action. The first part of the volume deals with main concepts, methodological issues and phenomena common to different kinds of speech action. The second part deals with specific kinds of speech actions, including types of illocutionary acts and some discourse and conversational phenomena.