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A Concrete Introduction To Higher Algebra

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A Concrete Introduction to Higher Algebra

A Concrete Introduction To Higher Algebra [Pdf/ePub] eBook

A Concrete Introduction to Higher Algebra by Lindsay N. Childs Book Summary:

This book is an informal and readable introduction to higher algebra at the post-calculus level. The concepts of ring and field are introduced through study of the familiar examples of the integers and polynomials. The new examples and theory are built in a well-motivated fashion and made relevant by many applications - to cryptography, coding, integration, history of mathematics, and especially to elementary and computational number theory. The later chapters include expositions of Rabiin's probabilistic primality test, quadratic reciprocity, and the classification of finite fields. Over 900 exercises are found throughout the book.

A Concrete Introduction to Higher Algebra

A Concrete Introduction To Higher Algebra [Pdf/ePub] eBook

A Concrete Introduction to Higher Algebra by Lindsay N. Childs Book Summary:

An informal and readable introduction to higher algebra at the post-calculus level. The concepts of ring and field are introduced through study of the familiar examples of the integers and polynomials, with much emphasis placed on congruence classes leading the way to finite groups and finite fields. New examples and theory are integrated in a well-motivated fashion and made relevant by many applications -- to cryptography, coding, integration, history of mathematics, and especially to elementary and computational number theory. The later chapters include expositions of Rabiin's probabilistic primality test, quadratic reciprocity, and the classification of finite fields. Over 900 exercises, ranging from routine examples to extensions of theory, are scattered throughout the book, with hints and answers for many of them included in an appendix.

A Concrete Introduction to Higher Algebra

A Concrete Introduction To Higher Algebra [Pdf/ePub] eBook

A Concrete Introduction to Higher Algebra by Lindsay N. Childs Book Summary:

This book presents an informal and readable introduction to higher algebra at the post-calculus level. Over 900 exercises, ranging from routine examples to extensions of theory, are found throughout the book; hints and answers for many of them are included in an appendix.

A Concrete Introduction to Higher Algebra

A Concrete Introduction To Higher Algebra [Pdf/ePub] eBook

A Concrete Introduction to Higher Algebra by Lindsay Childs Book Summary:

This book is written as an introduction to higher algebra for students with a background of a year of calculus. The book developed out of a set of notes for a sophomore-junior level course at the State University of New York at Albany entitled Classical Algebra. In the 1950s and before, it was customary for the first course in algebra to be a course in the theory of equations, consisting of a study of polynomials over the complex, real, and rational numbers, and, to a lesser extent, linear algebra from the point of view of systems of equations. Abstract algebra, that is, the study of groups, rings, and fields, usually followed such a course. In recent years the theory of equations course has disappeared. Without it, students entering abstract algebra courses tend to lack the experience in the algebraic theory of the basic classical examples of the integers and polynomials necessary for understanding, and more importantly, for ap preciating the formalism. To meet this problem, several texts have recently appeared introducing algebra through number theory.

Abstract Algebra

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Abstract Algebra by Robert H. Redfield Book Summary:

This is a new text for the Abstract Algebra course. The author has written this text with a unique, yet historical, approach: solvability by radicals. This approach depends on a fields-first organization. However, professors wishing to commence their course with group theory will find that the Table of Contents is highly flexible, and contains a generous amount of group coverage.

A Modern Introduction to Linear Algebra

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A Modern Introduction to Linear Algebra by Henry Ricardo Book Summary:

Useful Concepts and Results at the Heart of Linear AlgebraA one- or two-semester course for a wide variety of students at the sophomore/junior undergraduate levelA Modern Introduction to Linear Algebra provides a rigorous yet accessible matrix-oriented introduction to the essential concepts of linear algebra. Concrete, easy-to-understand examples m

Conics and Cubics

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Conics and Cubics by Robert Bix Book Summary:

Algebraic curves are the graphs of polynomial equations in two vari 3 ables, such as y3 + 5xy2 = x + 2xy. By focusing on curves of degree at most 3-lines, conics, and cubics-this book aims to fill the gap between the familiar subject of analytic geometry and the general study of alge braic curves. This text is designed for a one-semester class that serves both as a a geometry course for mathematics majors in general and as a sequel to college geometry for teachers of secondary school mathe matics. The only prerequisite is first-year calculus. On the one hand, this book can serve as a text for an undergraduate geometry course for all mathematics majors. Algebraic geometry unites algebra, geometry, topology, and analysis, and it is one of the most exciting areas of modem mathematics. Unfortunately, the subject is not easily accessible, and most introductory courses require a prohibitive amount of mathematical machinery. We avoid this problem by focusing on curves of degree at most 3. This keeps the results tangible and the proofs natural. It lets us emphasize the power of two fundamental ideas, homogeneous coordinates and intersection multiplicities.

A Book of Abstract Algebra

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A Book of Abstract Algebra by Charles C Pinter Book Summary:

Accessible but rigorous, this outstanding text encompasses all of the topics covered by a typical course in elementary abstract algebra. Its easy-to-read treatment offers an intuitive approach, featuring informal discussions followed by thematically arranged exercises. This second edition features additional exercises to improve student familiarity with applications. 1990 edition.

Rings, Fields, and Vector Spaces

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Rings, Fields, and Vector Spaces by B.A. Sethuraman Book Summary:

Using the proof of the non-trisectability of an arbitrary angle as a final goal, the author develops in an easy conversational style the basics of rings, fields, and vector spaces. Originally developed as a text for an introduction to algebra course for future high-school teachers at California State University, Northridge, the focus of this book is on exposition. It would serve extremely well as a focused, one-semester introduction to abstract algebra.

Introduction to Applied Linear Algebra

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Introduction to Applied Linear Algebra by Stephen Boyd,Lieven Vandenberghe Book Summary:

A groundbreaking introduction to vectors, matrices, and least squares for engineering applications, offering a wealth of practical examples.

Introduction to Higher Algebra

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Introduction to Higher Algebra by Maxime Bocher Book Summary:

This book has been considered by academicians and scholars of great significance and value to literature. This forms a part of the knowledge base for future generations. So that the book is never forgotten we have represented this book in a print format as the same form as it was originally first published. Hence any marks or annotations seen are left intentionally to preserve its true nature.

Cryptology and Error Correction

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Cryptology and Error Correction by Lindsay N. Childs Book Summary:

This text presents a careful introduction to methods of cryptology and error correction in wide use throughout the world and the concepts of abstract algebra and number theory that are essential for understanding these methods. The objective is to provide a thorough understanding of RSA, Diffie–Hellman, and Blum–Goldwasser cryptosystems and Hamming and Reed–Solomon error correction: how they are constructed, how they are made to work efficiently, and also how they can be attacked. To reach that level of understanding requires and motivates many ideas found in a first course in abstract algebra—rings, fields, finite abelian groups, basic theory of numbers, computational number theory, homomorphisms, ideals, and cosets. Those who complete this book will have gained a solid mathematical foundation for more specialized applied courses on cryptology or error correction, and should also be well prepared, both in concepts and in motivation, to pursue more advanced study in algebra and number theory. This text is suitable for classroom or online use or for independent study. Aimed at students in mathematics, computer science, and engineering, the prerequisite includes one or two years of a standard calculus sequence. Ideally the reader will also take a concurrent course in linear algebra or elementary matrix theory. A solutions manual for the 400 exercises in the book is available to instructors who adopt the text for their course.

Algebra

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Algebra by John Scherk Book Summary:

Adequate texts that introduce the concepts of abstract algebra are plentiful. None, however, are more suited to those needing a mathematical background for careers in engineering, computer science, the physical sciences, industry, or finance than Algebra: A Computational Introduction. Along with a unique approach and presentation, the author demonstrates how software can be used as a problem-solving tool for algebra. A variety of factors set this text apart. Its clear exposition, with each chapter building upon the previous ones, provides greater clarity for the reader. The author first introduces permutation groups, then linear groups, before finally tackling abstract groups. He carefully motivates Galois theory by introducing Galois groups as symmetry groups. He includes many computations, both as examples and as exercises. All of this works to better prepare readers for understanding the more abstract concepts. By carefully integrating the use of Mathematica® throughout the book in examples and exercises, the author helps readers develop a deeper understanding and appreciation of the material. The numerous exercises and examples along with downloads available from the Internet help establish a valuable working knowledge of Mathematica and provide a good reference for complex problems encountered in the field.

Introduction to Modern Algebra and Matrix Theory

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Introduction to Modern Algebra and Matrix Theory by O. Schreier,E. Sperner Book Summary:

This unique text provides students with a basic course in both calculus and analytic geometry — no competitive editions cover both topics in a single volume. Its prerequisites are minimal, and the order of its presentation promotes an intuitive approach to calculus. Algebraic concepts receive an unusually strong emphasis. Numerous exercises appear throughout the text. 1951 edition.

Introduction to Calculus and Classical Analysis

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Introduction to Calculus and Classical Analysis by Omar Hijab Book Summary:

Intended for an honors calculus course or for an introduction to analysis, this is an ideal text for undergraduate majors since it covers rigorous analysis, computational dexterity, and a breadth of applications. The book contains many remarkable features: * complete avoidance of /epsilon-/delta arguments by using sequences instead * definition of the integral as the area under the graph, while area is defined for every subset of the plane * complete avoidance of complex numbers * heavy emphasis on computational problems * applications from many parts of analysis, e.g. convex conjugates, Cantor set, continued fractions, Bessel functions, the zeta functions, and many more * 344 problems with solutions in the back of the book.

Elements of Algebra

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Elements of Algebra by John Stillwell Book Summary:

Algebra is abstract mathematics - let us make no bones about it - yet it is also applied mathematics in its best and purest form. It is not abstraction for its own sake, but abstraction for the sake of efficiency, power and insight. Algebra emerged from the struggle to solve concrete, physical problems in geometry, and succeeded after 2000 years of failure by other forms of mathematics. It did this by exposing the mathematical structure of geometry, and by providing the tools to analyse it. This is typical of the way algebra is applied; it is the best and purest form of application because it reveals the simplest and most universal mathematical structures. The present book aims to foster a proper appreciation of algebra by showing abstraction at work on concrete problems, the classical problems of construction by straightedge and compass. These problems originated in the time of Euclid, when geometry and number theory were paramount, and were not solved until th the 19 century, with the advent of abstract algebra. As we now know, alge bra brings about a unification of geometry, number theory and indeed most branches of mathematics. This is not really surprising when one has a historical understanding of the subject, which I also hope to impart.

Fields and Galois Theory

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Fields and Galois Theory by John M. Howie Book Summary:

A modern and student-friendly introduction to this popular subject: it takes a more "natural" approach and develops the theory at a gentle pace with an emphasis on clear explanations Features plenty of worked examples and exercises, complete with full solutions, to encourage independent study Previous books by Howie in the SUMS series have attracted excellent reviews

Computing the Continuous Discretely

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Computing the Continuous Discretely by Matthias Beck,Sinai Robins Book Summary:

This textbook illuminates the field of discrete mathematics with examples, theory, and applications of the discrete volume of a polytope. The authors have weaved a unifying thread through basic yet deep ideas in discrete geometry, combinatorics, and number theory. We encounter here a friendly invitation to the field of "counting integer points in polytopes", and its various connections to elementary finite Fourier analysis, generating functions, the Frobenius coin-exchange problem, solid angles, magic squares, Dedekind sums, computational geometry, and more. With 250 exercises and open problems, the reader feels like an active participant.

An Introduction to Grobner Bases

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An Introduction to Grobner Bases by William W. Adams and Philippe Loustaunau Book Summary:

A very carefully crafted introduction to the theory and some of the applications of Grobner bases ... contains a wealth of illustrative examples and a wide variety of useful exercises, the discussion is everywhere well-motivated, and further developments and important issues are well sign-posted ... has many solid virtues and is an ideal text for beginners in the subject ... certainly an excellent text. --Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society As the primary tool for doing explicit computations in polynomial rings in many variables, Grobner bases are an important component of all computer algebra systems. They are also important in computational commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. This book provides a leisurely and fairly comprehensive introduction to Grobner bases and their applications. Adams and Loustaunau cover the following topics: the theory and construction of Grobner bases for polynomials with coefficients in a field, applications of Grobner bases to computational problems involving rings of polynomials in many variables, a method for computing syzygy modules and Grobner bases in modules, and the theory of Grobner bases for polynomials with coefficients in rings. With over 120 worked-out examples and 200 exercises, this book is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students. It would be suitable as a supplement to a course in commutative algebra or as a textbook for a course in computer algebra or computational commutative algebra. This book would also be appropriate for students of computer science and engineering who have some acquaintance with modern algebra.

A Concrete Approach to Mathematical Modelling

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A Concrete Approach to Mathematical Modelling by Mike Mesterton-Gibbons Book Summary:

WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists ofselected books that have been made more accessible to consumers inan effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. Withthese new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend thelives of these works by making them available to future generationsof statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. " . . . [a] treasure house of material for students and teachersalike . . . can be dipped into regularly for inspiration and ideas.It deserves to become a classic." —London Times Higher Education Supplement "The author succeeds in his goal of serving the needs of theundergraduate population who want to see mathematics in action, andthe mathematics used is extensive and provoking." —SIAM Review "Each chapter discusses a wealth of examples ranging from oldstandards . . . to novelty . . . each model is developedcritically, analyzed critically, and assessed critically." —Mathematical Reviews A Concrete Approach to Mathematical Modelling providesin-depth and systematic coverage of the art and science ofmathematical modelling. Dr. Mesterton-Gibbons shows how themodelling process works and includes fascinating examples fromvirtually every realm of human, machine, natural, and cosmicactivity. Various models are found throughout the book, includinghow to determine how fast cars drive through a tunnel, how manyworkers industry should employ, the length of a supermarketcheckout line, and more. With detailed explanations, exercises, andexamples demonstrating real-life applications in diverse fields,this book is the ultimate guide for students and professionals inthe social sciences, life sciences, engineering, statistics,economics, politics, business and management sciences, and everyother discipline in which mathematical modelling plays a role.

Modern Algebra

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Modern Algebra by Seth Warner Book Summary:

Standard text provides an exceptionally comprehensive treatment of every aspect of modern algebra. Explores algebraic structures, rings and fields, vector spaces, polynomials, linear operators, much more. Over 1,300 exercises. 1965 edition.

Calculus of Several Variables

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Calculus of Several Variables by Serge Lang Book Summary:

This new, revised edition covers all of the basic topics in calculus of several variables, including vectors, curves, functions of several variables, gradient, tangent plane, maxima and minima, potential functions, curve integrals, Green’s theorem, multiple integrals, surface integrals, Stokes’ theorem, and the inverse mapping theorem and its consequences. It includes many completely worked-out problems.

Abstract Algebra

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Abstract Algebra by Thomas W Judson Book Summary:

Download or read Abstract Algebra book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Higher Algebra: A Sequel to Elementary Algebra for Schools

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Higher Algebra: A Sequel to Elementary Algebra for Schools by H. S. Hall,S. R. Knight Book Summary:

Download or read Higher Algebra: A Sequel to Elementary Algebra for Schools book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Introduction to GNU Octave

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Introduction to GNU Octave by Jason Lachniet Book Summary:

A brief introduction to scientific computing with GNU Octave. Designed as a textbook supplement for freshman and sophomore level linear algebra and calculus students.

Introduction to Higher Algebra

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Introduction to Higher Algebra by A. Mostowski,M. Stark Book Summary:

Introduction to Higher Algebra is an 11-chapter text that covers some mathematical investigations concerning higher algebra. After an introduction to sets of functions, mathematical induction, and arbitrary numbers, this book goes on considering some combinatorial problems, complex numbers, determinants, vector spaces, and linear equations. These topics are followed by discussions of the determination of polynomials in ne variable, rings of real and complex polynomials, and algebraic and transcendental numbers. The final chapters deal with the polynomials in several variables, symmetric functions, the theory of elimination, and the quadratic and Hermitian forms. This book will be of value to mathematicians and students.

Basic Abstract Algebra

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Basic Abstract Algebra by P. B. Bhattacharya,S. K. Jain,S. R. Nagpaul Book Summary:

This book provides a complete abstract algebra course, enabling instructors to select the topics for use in individual classes.

Introduction to College Mathematics with A Programming Language

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Introduction to College Mathematics with A Programming Language by Edward J. LeCuyer Book Summary:

The topics covered in this text are those usually covered in a full year's course in finite mathematics or mathematics for liberal arts students. They correspond very closely to the topics I have taught at Western New England College to freshmen business and liberal arts students. They include set theory, logic, matrices and determinants, functions and graph ing, basic differential and integral calculus, probability and statistics, and trigonometry. Because this is an introductory text, none of these topics is dealt with in great depth. The idea is to introduce the student to some of the basic concepts in mathematics along with some of their applications. I believe that this text is self-contained and can be used successfully by any college student who has completed at least two years of high school mathematics including one year of algebra. In addition, no previous knowledge of any programming language is necessary. The distinguishing feature of this text is that the student is given the opportunity to learn the mathematical concepts via A Programming Lan guage (APL). APL was developed by Kenneth E. Iverson while he was at Harvard University and was presented in a book by Dr. Iverson entitled A i Programming Language in 1962. He invented APL for educational purpo ses. That is, APL was designed to be a consistent, unambiguous, and powerful notation for communicating mathematical ideas. In 1966, APL became available on a time-sharing system at IBM.

Mathematics for the Analysis of Algorithms

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Mathematics for the Analysis of Algorithms by Daniel H. Greene,Donald E. Knuth Book Summary:

This monograph collects some fundamental mathematical techniques that are required for the analysis of algorithms. It builds on the fundamentals of combinatorial analysis and complex variable theory to present many of the major paradigms used in the precise analysis of algorithms, emphasizing the more difficult notions. The authors cover recurrence relations, operator methods, and asymptotic analysis in a format that is concise enough for easy reference yet detailed enough for those with little background with the material.

Concrete Approach to Abstract Algebra

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Concrete Approach to Abstract Algebra by W. W. Sawyer Book Summary:

Brief, clear, and well written, this introductory treatment bridges the gap between traditional and modern algebra. Includes exercises with complete solutions. The only prerequisite is high school-level algebra. 1959 edition.

Algebraic Theories

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Algebraic Theories by J. Adámek,J. Rosický,E. M. Vitale Book Summary:

Algebraic theories, introduced as a concept in the 1960s, have been a fundamental step towards a categorical view of general algebra. Moreover, they have proved very useful in various areas of mathematics and computer science. This carefully developed book gives a systematic introduction to algebra based on algebraic theories that is accessible to both graduate students and researchers. It will facilitate interactions of general algebra, category theory and computer science. A central concept is that of sifted colimits - that is, those commuting with finite products in sets. The authors prove the duality between algebraic categories and algebraic theories and discuss Morita equivalence between algebraic theories. They also pay special attention to one-sorted algebraic theories and the corresponding concrete algebraic categories over sets, and to S-sorted algebraic theories, which are important in program semantics. The final chapter is devoted to finitary localizations of algebraic categories, a recent research area.

Notes on Set Theory

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Notes on Set Theory by Yiannis N. Moschovakis Book Summary:

The axiomatic theory of sets is a vibrant part of pure mathematics, with its own basic notions, fundamental results, and deep open problems. It is also viewed as a foundation of mathematics so that "to make a notion precise" simply means "to define it in set theory." This book gives a solid introduction to "pure set theory" through transfinite recursion and the construction of the cumulative hierarchy of sets, and also attempts to explain how mathematical objects can be faithfully modeled within the universe of sets. In this new edition the author has added solutions to the exercises, and rearranged and reworked the text to improve the presentation.

Algebraic Topology

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Algebraic Topology by William Fulton Book Summary:

To the Teacher. This book is designed to introduce a student to some of the important ideas of algebraic topology by emphasizing the re lations of these ideas with other areas of mathematics. Rather than choosing one point of view of modem topology (homotopy theory, simplicial complexes, singular theory, axiomatic homology, differ ential topology, etc.), we concentrate our attention on concrete prob lems in low dimensions, introducing only as much algebraic machin ery as necessary for the problems we meet. This makes it possible to see a wider variety of important features of the subject than is usual in a beginning text. The book is designed for students of mathematics or science who are not aiming to become practicing algebraic topol ogists-without, we hope, discouraging budding topologists. We also feel that this approach is in better harmony with the historical devel opment of the subject. What would we like a student to know after a first course in to pology (assuming we reject the answer: half of what one would like the student to know after a second course in topology)? Our answers to this have guided the choice of material, which includes: under standing the relation between homology and integration, first on plane domains, later on Riemann surfaces and in higher dimensions; wind ing numbers and degrees of mappings, fixed-point theorems; appli cations such as the Jordan curve theorem, invariance of domain; in dices of vector fields and Euler characteristics; fundamental groups

Introduction to Topology

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Introduction to Topology by V. A. Vasilʹev Book Summary:

This English translation of a Russian book presents the basic notions of differential and algebraic topology, which are indispensable for specialists and useful for research mathematicians and theoretical physicists. In particular, ideas and results are introduced related to manifolds, cell spaces, coverings and fibrations, homotopy groups, intersection index, etc. The author notes, ``The lecture note origins of the book left a significant imprint on its style. It contains very few detailed proofs: I tried to give as many illustrations as possible and to show what really occurs in topology, not always explaining why it occurs.'' He concludes, ``As a rule, only those proofs (or sketches of proofs) that are interesting per se and have important generalizations are presented.''

Variational Calculus with Elementary Convexity

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Variational Calculus with Elementary Convexity by J.L. Troutman Book Summary:

The calculus of variations, whose origins can be traced to the works of Aristotle and Zenodoros, is now Ii vast repository supplying fundamental tools of exploration not only to the mathematician, but-as evidenced by current literature-also to those in most branches of science in which mathematics is applied. (Indeed, the macroscopic statements afforded by variational principles may provide the only valid mathematical formulation of many physical laws. ) As such, it retains the spirit of natural philosophy common to most mathematical investigations prior to this century. How ever, it is a discipline in which a single symbol (b) has at times been assigned almost mystical powers of operation and discernment, not readily subsumed into the formal structures of modern mathematics. And it is a field for which it is generally supposed that most questions motivating interest in the subject will probably not be answerable at the introductory level of their formulation. In earlier articles,1,2 it was shown through several examples that a complete characterization of the solution of optimization problems may be available by elementary methods, and it is the purpose of this work to explore further the convexity which underlay these individual successes in the context of a full introductory treatment of the theory of the variational calculus. The required convexity is that determined through Gateaux variations, which can be defined in any real linear space and which provide an unambiguous foundation for the theory.

The Art of Proof

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The Art of Proof by Matthias Beck,Ross Geoghegan Book Summary:

The Art of Proof is designed for a one-semester or two-quarter course. A typical student will have studied calculus (perhaps also linear algebra) with reasonable success. With an artful mixture of chatty style and interesting examples, the student's previous intuitive knowledge is placed on solid intellectual ground. The topics covered include: integers, induction, algorithms, real numbers, rational numbers, modular arithmetic, limits, and uncountable sets. Methods, such as axiom, theorem and proof, are taught while discussing the mathematics rather than in abstract isolation. The book ends with short essays on further topics suitable for seminar-style presentation by small teams of students, either in class or in a mathematics club setting. These include: continuity, cryptography, groups, complex numbers, ordinal number, and generating functions.

The Book of Traces

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The Book of Traces by Volker Diekert,Grzegorz Rozenberg Book Summary:

The theory of traces employs techniques and tackles problems from quite diverse areas which include formal language theory, combinatorics, graph theory, algebra, logic, and the theory of concurrent systems. In all these areas the theory of traces has led to interesting problems and significant results. It has made an especially big impact in formal language theory and the theory of concurrent systems. In both these disciplines it is a well-recognized and dynamic research area. Within formal language theory it yields the theory of partially commutative monoids, and provides an important connection between languages and graphs. Within the theory of concurrent systems it provides an important formal framework for the analysis and synthesis of concurrent systems.This monograph covers all important research lines of the theory of traces; each chapter is devoted to one research line and is written by leading experts. The book is organized in such a way that each chapter can be read independently ? and hence it is very suitable for advanced courses or seminars on formal language theory, the theory of concurrent systems, the theory of semigroups, and combinatorics. An extensive bibliography is included. At present, there is no other book of this type on trace theory.

Analysis by Its History

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Analysis by Its History by Ernst Hairer,Gerhard Wanner Book Summary:

This book presents first-year calculus roughly in the order in which it was first discovered. The first two chapters show how the ancient calculations of practical problems led to infinite series, differential and integral calculus and to differential equations. The establishment of mathematical rigour for these subjects in the 19th century for one and several variables is treated in chapters III and IV. Many quotations are included to give the flavor of the history. The text is complemented by a large number of examples, calculations and mathematical pictures and will provide stimulating and enjoyable reading for students, teachers, as well as researchers.